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Primary alcohol

R-CH 2-OH (R = a hydrogen atom or a hydrocarbon group.)
OH group is bound to a carbon atom that binds more than one other carbon atom.

In oxidation

Upon careful oxidation of a primary alcohol produced a corresponding aldehyde.
Upon vigorous oxidation produced a corresponding carboxylic acid.

2CH3OH + O2  2HCHO + H20 (dehydration - removal of hydrogen)
The oxidation of a primary alcohol can be generally described as follows:
primary alcohol, aldehyde, carboxylic

Secondary alcohol

CH - OH (R = same or different hydrocarbon groups.)
OH - group is bonded to a carbon atom which bonds to two other carbon atoms.
In oxidation
In moderate oxidation of a secondary alcohol formed a ketone.
When violent oxidation deficiencies carbon chain.
R1 R1
CHOH  C = O
R2 R2
Secondary alcohol ketone

Tertiary alcohol

R2 C - OH (R = hydrocarbon.)
OH - group is bonded to a carbon atom that binds to the other three.
Tertiary alcohols are affected only by strong oxidizing agents and is broken then only broken.

Alcohols are ampholytes but the pressure has weak acid or base characteristics. They can react with the alkali metals (eg sodium) and form hydrogen, but they can not form the salt of NaOH.
Sulfur is under oxygen in periodiskasytemet and therefore can replace oxygen. If the oxygen in the formula
R-OH is replaced with sulfur R-SH formed alcohol sulfur analogue - the so-called thiol. These can be easily oxidized and form disulfide:
2RSH  R - S - S - R
Group-SH present in all proteins. After an oxidation (the left side) hangs protein chain in a certain shape thanks to the sulfur.


If a hydrogen atom of a benzene group is replaced with an OH group forming the phenol. Phenol is much stronger acids than alcohols, they can dissolve NaOH.
Acid strength of the phenol depends on the resonance. This means that the negative electron's position determines the molecule's structure.
Delocalized electrons can move between different atoms in a molecule or ion.
De-localization of electrons produces a molecule / ion lower energy and thus higher stability.
Phenols are acids because fenoxidjoner form the resonant structure.


An elimination reaction is a reaction when one removes substances that when heating (170oC) ethanol with concentrated H2SO4:
H - CH 2 - CH 2 - OH  CH 2 - CH 2 + H 2 O
If, instead, allows the temperature was less happens to the hydrogen atom and the hydroxyl group by two ethanol molecules.
C2H5OH + C2H5OH  C2H5OC2H5 + H2O

These combine to form water and allow the ethanol merge.
This is a condensation reaction since two or more molecules linked together. Simultaneously split off one or more small molecules - usually water molecules.
General formula of an ether is:
R1 - O - R 2
where R is a hydrocarbon.
The most common ether is diethyl ether. It solves alcohols and hydrocarbons firm is dissolved itself easily in water and is highly flammable.
Amines are alkyl derivatives of ammonia. All amines are bases. Preparation of methylamine.
CH3NH2 + H2O → CH3NH3 + + OH-

Aldehydes and Ketones
All aldehydes have a carbonyl group:

C = O
Since oxygen has a higher electronegativity, it attracts the electron and the carbonyl group becomes polarized.
General formula of an aldehyde is
where R is a hydrogen atom or a hydrocarbon.
Formaldehyde is the simplest aldehyde, it also has the name methanal.
Aldehydernas rational name is formed by adding-al at the end of the hydrocarbon name.
Aldehydes are reducing agents. The oxidized to carboxylic acids.


General formula for a ketone are:
where R is a hydrocarbon.
Ketonernas rational name formed by adding the suffix-on to the hydrocarbon name.
Ketones do not seem reductive.

NOTE! Both aldehydes and ketones can be reduced. An aldehyde is reduced to the corresponding primary alcohol and a ketone to the corresponding secondary alcohol.


Any carboxylic acids having a carboxyl group:
General formula for a karboxalsyra is:
R equals H or a hydrocarbon radical.
Carboxylic acid name is formed by adding the suffix-acid correspondingly kolvätesnamn.
Carboxylic acids have a high melting and boiling point. The boiling point rises with the number of carbon atoms in the chain. They are also relatively weak acids.
Proteolysis of a carboxylic acid
The formula for a proteolysis:
It is the proton of the OH group is emitted when the carboxylic acid protolysed. The negative ion RCOO-called carboxylate.
The carboxylic acids are much stronger than alkoholern. When an alcohol protolysed stops the electron in one place while when a Karboxylsyrora protolysed it can move over three atoms of oxygen - carbon - oxygen. It is thus delocalized. This leads to the existence of two resonant structures - one where the electron is located at one oxygen and the other when it is at the oxygen.
NOTE! There is a third position where the electron is between the oxygen atoms and then it is called a resonance hybrid.
The molecules of unsaturated carboxylic acids containing at least always one carbon - carbon double bond.
Dicarboxylic acids containing two carboxyl groups. The carbon binds the second carbon and after going OOH.

Derivatives of carboxylic acids (mixture)

If mixing an acid and an alcohol, an ester is formed.
One can derive a formula for the ester of formula to a carboxylic acid by replacing karboxylvätet (underlined) to a hydrocarbon group (also underlined).
CH3COOH gives CH3OOC2H5 ester by the reaction:

acetic acid, ethanol etyletanoat water
Hydrogen ions catalyze ester formation.
General formula

R1COOH + R 2 OH  R1COOR2 + H2O
carboxylic acid alcohol ester water

R1 is H or a hydrocarbon radical.
R 2 is a hydrocarbon radical.
The structural formula
R1 - C

Acidic ester hydrolysis

At acidic ester hydrolysis of an ester formed an acid and an alcohol. Ester hydrolysis catalyzed by hydrogen ions (acid).
Ester hydrolysis is the same as ester formation in reverse. None of these reactions can be run continuously without equilibrium appear eventually.

Alkaline ester hydrolysis ("saponification")
At alkaline ester hydrolysis reaction, an ester with hydroxide ions. Then form an alcohol and the negative ion to the acid formed ester.


Lipids are a common name for a large group of compounds that have a different look but the same characteristics. They are esters of carboxylic acids that usually have long unbranched carbon chains. They are usually insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents such as hydrocarbons (gasoline).
The largest group of the lipids constituting fats and oils but also vaaxer belong to the lipids. Many hormones and steroids among lipderna.

Amino acids

Compounds containing both a carboxyl group and an amino group are called amino acids.
General Formula for α-amino acids is
R is a H or a hydrocarbon radical.
Sentiella amino acids are amino acids that we can not be themselves (in the body). Those containing an aromatic ring (such as benzene).
The structural formula

RR = Hydrocarbon and Nitrogen and Sulfur
H2 N - C-COOH H 2 N = Amino group
H COOH = Carboxyl

General formulas

Primary alcohol R-CH 2-OH
Secondary alcohol R1 R2 CH-OH
Tertieralkohol R1 R2 R3 CHOH
Thiols 2RSH  RSSR
Ethers R1 - O - R 2
Aldehydes RCHO
Ketones R 1 CO R 2
Carboxylic acid RCOOH
Proteolysis of Carboxylic acid RCOOH + H2O  RCOO-+ H3O +
Derivatives of Carboxylic R1COOH + R 2 OH  R 1 COO R2 + H2O
Rational name
Description Name Suffix Example
Basic form Alkan-an Methane
A double bond Alken-one Ethylene
Triple Binding alkyne-yn ethyne
Two double bonds Dien-diene Propadiene
OH group Alcohol-ol Methanol
CO between two hydrocarbons Ketone-on Acetone
CHO group with aldehyde al Methanal
COOH group carboxylic acid Meta Acid
An O between two hydrocarbons ether-ether Diethyl ether
NH3 group with Amine-amine Methylamine
COO between two hydrocarbons Ester-oate ethyl butanoate
H2N and COOH & R amino acid

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