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Cloing

Topic: Biology , English
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Human and animal cloning Including stem cell research
Cells are the smallest building blocks of life. Every living organism on this earth That fulfil all the terms of "Mrs. Branch / Nerg" are definitely drew out of cell. Cells Have Many Functions with party like the nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, etc. Animal Cells definatley nucleus, cytoplasm, vacuole and the cell membrane but, paint the party like chloroplasts and a cell wall That plant cell definatley for Making glucose into the process of photosynthesis and staying rigid.

How cells are built up - Mitosis

Eukaryotic cells are made by an asexual cell division process called mitosis. The process starts by the chromosome in a dividing cell's nucleus. The chromosomes in a eukaryotic cell into separate .its own cell nucleus and Develops Into Two Identical daughter cells with the same nucleus. The processes in a cell were dividing chromosomes in a cell nucleus Occurs ice called mitosis.

The process of mitosis Showed in a small chart:
How a cell's function - the Important cell Party: The five main organelles of an animal cell:
Nucleus - is the "brain" of a cell and is the control center, the nucleus contains DNA (the genetic coding) and the HAS all the genetic information for Making a new cell.
Cell membrane - The "skin" of a cell, it controls what comes into and goes out of the cell, ice Reviews the surrounding of the cell and it is overpriced recognizes other cells.
Mitochondria - Are the power stations of a cell and break down food and combine it with oxygen for Making energy to the cell.
Vacuoles - The food-storage of a cell, it stores food (energy) for the cell.
Cytoplasm - Is the jellylike substance "transportation network" of a cell, allows other parts of the cell to move around in the cell.

The Most Important Part of a cell - for the topic Stem Cells included Cloning: I have Chosen to write the essay about ice the nucleus. All the parts in your body contain 'Exactly The Same DNA (Because of the nucleus in every cell) - that's why cloning and making stem cells are possible.

The Process of Cloning and Stem Cells

The Most Important party is the nucleus Because You Take the nucleus for the EC from any cell to clone yourself and take that cell's nucleus and inject That to a surrogate woman's empty egg cell Which Does not contain 'any nucleus. This egg cell withyour DNA into it, Develops Into Stem Cells in The Other surrogate woman's womb - you do not let the stem cells developement into a baby with the same DNA as you and take the embryonic stem cells out Which contains your DNA and use it for Improving your health or, you let the embryonic stem cells developement into a clone of you.
There are two Different types of stem cell research:
• Adult Stem Cells - When You Take the stem cells from an adult and make new tissue from it but adult stem cells are not as flexible as embryonic stem cells unfortunately.
• Embryonic stem cells - When You Take the stem cells from a pre-embryo. Samma as therapeutic cloning.
There are Three Different Types of cloning:
Cloning is making an exact copy of another animal, human, etc.
• Embryo Cloning - Twins or triplets Can Be Made With This type of cloning Because it duplicates the nature's process and there fore twins and triplets are screened.
• Adult DNA cloning (aka reproductive cloning) - A new exact copy of a mammal ice-profile withthis type of cloning. This type of cloning is distressed Helping Animals That are less in numbers to Increase Their so species survive.
• Therapeutic cloning (aka biomedical cloning) - The first stages in Therapeutic cloning is the same as the adult DNA cloning - but it changes Because You take the (fertilized ovum) pre-embryo and take the stem cells to make new organs for transplant and New tissues for damaged tissues.

Interesting fact about Cloning: Cloning happens naturalism In Both animal and plants When Identical twins are screened. If the Identical twins then look different, then That is caused by environmental variation.

Genetic Heredity

The Passing of characteristics and genesis for the EC eye color are passed down from parents to Their offspring. Some genes are recessive others are dominant. Because some genes are not dominant (recessive) - that's why some offspring are mixtures. Allele ice A Different name for Gene, but genes are called alleles When there are two Different genesis for the EC Bb. Allele ice finns a specified type of Gene for a specified characteristic, for example, bb blond hair and bB black hair. An offspring Which is a mixture Has a dominant and a recessive allele from .its parents hadeeth That individual is heterozygous. An offspring Which is not a mixture, Have the Same Type of alleles from bothering parents hadeeth That individual is homozygous.

Big letters represents the dominant genes and small letters Represent recessive genes.

Genotypes Are The genesis one person HAS and phenotypes are the physical characteristics we see on a person. You inherit characteristics from bothering your parents and you're not Identical to them; You're a mixture between Their Genes and physical features. The chromosomes you get from your father and mother are called homologous pairs Because They contain 'Almost The Same information for your body like eg eye color, hair color, etc.
Punett squares help us to find the probability of how an offspring Will look like by the alleles of two parents. Punett squares show the relationship between the genotypes and the phenotypes. Punett squares appearance (to the right).

Sexual Reproduction in Animals

An offspring's 23 chromosomes each from a male and a female gamete and'll have 46 chromosomes as a total. The Process of When The haploid gametes the sperm (male gamete) and the ova (female gamete) the join is called fertilization. The fertilized egg is called the zygote, it implants itself into the lining of the uterus Which is called implantation. When implantation has occurred, then the woman is classified as pregnant. This zygote grows into tiny balls of cells and it's now called the embryo. The embryo grows more and Becomes a fetus Eventually. This fetus Develops more Until It's ready to come out of .its mother's body.
The Process of lifespan development simply starts When You Are A Baby (being conceived), and definatley Developed from an organism to a full-term infant.

Importance of Biological Diversity

Any organism Depend on each other to stay alive. In the nature there is an ecosystem humans included. This Means That if one animal species dies, than other animals in That Ecosystem Will die. There are predators and preys. Eg, If the seals and fishes dies where the polar bear lives, then the polar bear willalso die of starvation - Because .its food are the seals and the fishes Which does not exist anymore. If the polarbear The Predator Becomes Extinct then .its prey the seals and the fishes Will Increase the Number Because there is no predator hunting and eating them. It's an important issue with biological diversity Because if every human and animals had the same DNA, It could cause problems for offspring's so They were born with a handicap, diseases, etc.

The main reason for stopping animal species Becoming extinct ice Because The ecosystem can collapse if animal species Becomes Extinct, that's why cloning is Necessary. Scientists can now clone animal species, That are not many in numbers so They Increase in numbers however, this can overpriced ask've seen in a negative way. Cloning one animal species, too much can lead to Animals with too much of the same DNA Which can cause diseases between The Animals Because of the non variation in DNA.

The important issue for Biological Diversity are huge Because You Want To Have variation in all the species so animals with diseases, handicap, disorders, etc. are sick. Not enough spreading Between the genesis results thwart the handicap, diseases, disorders, etc.

Arguments for and Against Cloning and Stem Cell Research

There are many arguments for and against stem cell research and cloning. Ethical arguments are the one's that I think'll have stopped the use of stem cells, the ethical arguments are making good statements for NOT using stem cells and the scientific arguments are making good statements for stem cells. One of the aesthetic arguments Is that if a person'll have a disease you go and take a healthy cell from That person, clone That Cell And Then Take the Stem Cells That converts into (any cell) healthy tissue and replace the damaged tissue or organs into That person's body. This Person Will Be healthy Because The infected part of his / her body is gone. But there are many ethical arguments against stem cell research; The Strongest argument for NOT using Stem Cell Research Is that taking stem cells is a homicide Because You are killing an embryo Which many religious People Can Consider as a living thing - Which It Is but it Does not Have a conscious yet - does anybody remember being an embryo? I do not think an embryo is a human, it's not really a human being yet - it's not in That stage yet When The heart starts to beat. Many religious groups opposes stem cell research Because You Take the embryonic stem cells, and of according to These religious groups A Life starts just after sperm and ova definatley turned into a zygote (fertilized egg). Pro-lifers say That When The fertilization happens a new human being HAS BEEN screened. The pro-lifers overpriced Says That it's homicide to take stem cells from an embryo Because You're killing a life.

The scientific arguments Stem Cell Research Is that it can actually help people who are really sickening, definatley a disease, disorder and no waiting list for organs at hospitals Because new bodies are Made with cloning. The scientific arguments, aesthetic arguments are for Stem Cell Research and Cloning While the religious arguments are against bothering of them Because They Think Cloning and taking stem cells is not morally correct.

I believe That I can agree with all the arguments above, but I feel it's more important issue to save a human life, helping a person with a disorder / disease and taking stem cells is not really killing a human being with a conscious. I am Stem Cell Research and Cloning but if you abuse bothering Technologies It Will probably'll have serious effects on the nature, The Society and Individual.

Cloning History

First Animal cloned

Dolly is the sheep that was the first animal to get cloned in 1996 and contributed to the improvement of our living conditions by Increasing our Knowledge for cloning. Because You Could clone Dolly the sheep that's why you can clone manyother mammals like us humans, pandas, horses, etc and help the pandas or the other animals from extinction. This type of "adult DNA cloning" was abused When Dolly died as a 6 year old sheep Because They maid 277 Attempts and Dolly was the only sheep That maid it to adulthood.

How Dolly the sheep was cloned.

Horse Cloning

The Seventh species cloned ice the horse Promethea and was born in May 28th, 2003 and it is overpriced Helped human Increase Their Knowledge about cloning. Cloning was abused Also here, Because They tried Several times to clone horses but was Promethea The Only One That succeeded in birth. Cloning of mammals HAS resulted in helping animals That are less in numbers to Increase.

All the cloning on animals so far HAS given us knowledge on cloning. Dolly the sheep the first animal to be cloned, gave us the knowledge about how to actually clone, The Most Important Knowledge of this scientific approach. GM foods (genetically modified foods) Which are related to biotechnology - can help the starvation in the Third World Which can multiply foods. But at the sametime it can cause Unknown Health Risks and allergy Among mankind.

Conclusion:

Cloning and Stem Cells are both Positive and Negative. Cloning humans excellant Increase the rate of the world's population and Therefore the earth's resource management would not be enough for people. Stem cell would make people with sicknesses - makethem healthy and Therefore overpriced Increase the rate of Earth's population by making the zig people healthy. There are more children being born every day and people's Death ages are Increased. This simply Means more children are being born than people are dying. The Earth Will probably ask overpopulated without the help of cloning. Biotechnologies like stem cell research and cloning are really powerful technologies and abusing them can definatley many awful Consequences. I have read about "Eternity Life 'by the help of cloning cell in our body and stop the aging process. I do not really believe we can do that, but with the rapid speed That Technology is Developing maybe That can happen in the next 20 or 30 years. If They find a way to make humans Young With the help of cloning cells / stem cells, then I believe Their Will Be abuse on with it and willhave more Consequences than just cloning.

Making young people with a powerful tool as biotechnology would cost a lot of money and Those Who wouldhave afford it would ask the young. Many people would stay young much longer and not die Until They are really old. The Consequences Are The Earth Will Be very overpopulated Because Of all the healthy and Young People - the resource management of the Earth Will run out Eventually, Because The aging cycle is broken (read: lifecycle - from baby to death). More People Will Be homeless Because of the varnish of apartments in the world, rich and famous celebrities would abuse this technology and it wont be abused on the black market. The advantages with cloning are That couples who can not have the A Child - Can Have A Child That Has Its half-DNA and The disadvantages are the effects on the earth, Pupils and ethics. Cloning Can Also Increase the Amount of animal species That Can Be Extinct and preserve the species.
Anika Hossain

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