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The first attempts to fly

Topic: History
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The first attempts to fly

The first attempts made to try to fly was made by the Chinese people for about 1000 years ago with the help of kites and hot air balloons. In Europe, Leonardo da Vinci sketched the first designs for an aircraft; a mand grated construction with flapping wings, almost like a bird's wing. He also made the first sketches of a helicopter-like design and a parachute. Unfortunately, that was Leonardo's work no longer than sketches on paper because you could not find any kind of power source that could get the "aircraft" in the air. Later began to sketch and experiment on hot air balloons. During the 1700s invented to hydrogen balloons, which led to began experimenting with propulsion. The first real airships came first with piston engines, which were invented around the 1900s. During the late 1800s began experimenting in many different directions with flight, with the principle heavier than luft.Otto Lilienthal was probably the first person to fly a glider floated freely. He made many experiments and measurements on different models and also tested with Manning glide flights. Which went like that. Before he managed to end test their theories of flight with the help of a piston engined propeller so he perished during an experiment. Attempts were also on the aerodynamic studies and trials in France and England, but none succeeded because it has failed to find any power source that worked well enough. It tested using steam engines, but air machines became too heavy to lift then.
Some information about the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright

The two brothers are better known as "Wright Brothers" because they share the honor of exploring aerodynamics. (Aerodynamics is the study of air flow around as eg aircraft) Wright Brothers ran a bicycle shop in Dayton, Ohio, but had long experimented and studied the flight. After Lilienthal's death began the Wright brothers to experiment with his plans. They looked through Lilienthal try and structures that eventually allowed them to build the first glider. This occurred in 1900. Several flights were conducted and encouraged by the results began the Wright brothers built a larger plan. They began experimenting with several different models and designed an internal combustion engine installed in a biplane with two protruding propellers. Wright brothers brought an aircraft of interest over the world. December 14 was the first attempt by Flyer 1 but since Wilbur was above the guide as he lifted the plane sharply so that the plane crashed, the plane went down but was repaired as quickly.

December 17, 1903 at Kitty Hawk was the first flight with the engine, the aircraft was later renamed to "The Flyer". Orville flew for 12 seconds and the flight distance was 36.5 meters.

On March 3, 1908 an agreement was signed with the Frenchman Lazare Weller. The agreement was to Wilbur Wright would make certain skill tests and when they were finished would Lazare Wellers companies selling and using Wright's flying machines in Europe. The brothers decided to Orville would penetrate the American market at the same time opened up while Wilbur went to France. On August 8 1908 Wilbur flew its first demonstration flight at the races Hunaudieres. Several active airmen were among the spectators. Wilbur started and steps, made a few turns and landed after 1 minute and 45 seconds. For space reasons, the business was moved a few weeks later to a military training ground at Auvours. There was also built a simple hangar for his Flyer IV. On September 28, 1908, Wilbur won a prize of 5000 francs by flying 24 yards between the two marks at 1 kilometer from each other. For the feat, he received the French aero club's gold medal. The French company decided that it would produce 50 pieces Flyer IV for the European market and that Wilbur would train three pilots. It started a flying school in Pau.
For flight school in Pau will Wilbur siblings Katherine and Orville, where Katherine acts as their secretary. Spring 1909 Go Wilbur, Orville and his sister Katherine to Rome, where it carries out a series of air shows and educates two Italian officers to pilots. In May 1909, they travel back to Dayton to construct a new aircraft that is intended for the US Army. After the sale contract signed in August 1909 traveling Katherine and Orville to Berlin to continue marketing in Europe, while Wilbur tired of flight, stayed in the US to train a few officers in the Army Signal Corps. After they delivered the first US air machines to the US Army, Wilbur decided to withdraw from the flight and factory operations. He died in 1912 of Typhoid fever.

An English newspaper put out a prize of 1,000 pounds to the first flag over the English Channel. The winner was Frenchman Louis Blériot flew the route in July 1909. After that began the aviation industry is developing rapidly. Wright brothers' invention was a success, man could now for the first time fly! 1931 built the first plane that was driven by four motors, which in total could take 16 passengers and could fly at 2 000 meters. The world wars were terrible but it gave the aircraft's development a boost during the First World War had a managed to construct a plan that could reach 200 km / h and in the second a plane that could fly over 650 km / h.

The picture shows Wright brothers on one of their flights.
The aircraft

Aircraft is the name of an aircraft used to transport people and goods. The driver called the pilot. An aircraft taking off and landing usually at an airport. A passenger aircraft is an aircraft which is intended to carry passengers and their luggage. A cargo plane is used to transport goods. Aircraft may also be armed and used as combat aircraft.

For an aircraft to fly must generate a lifting force equal to its weight and have a tensile force is at least as large as its air resistance. An aircraft specially designed for aerobatics often have a symmetrical airfoil to have good maneuverability in all flight modes, even in the supine position. There are two types of engines, either propeller motors or jet engines. Jet engine works by compressors on the front of the engine compresses the air and then into the combustion chambers under high pressure. They inject fuel and combusted continuously. Aircraft operated by influencing the air stream with the rudder at the rear edge of the wings, fin and stabilizer, ailerons, rudder and elevator. Ailerons usually sits at the tip of the wings and the aircraft can be tilted laterally to facilitate turning. The fin get the aircraft to follow towards the inflowing air and the rudder on the fin control pilot accurate in yaw. Adjustable elevator travel in the horizontal stabilizer, the guide nose of the plane up or down and used when the aircraft is to increase or reduce the angle of attack. During takeoff and landing, folded flaps in the rear end. This also provides a higher drag, helping the planet to slow down for landing. You can get extra wind resistance with air brakes, which usually sits on top of the wing and is used when the aircraft is slowing down after landing or in the air.
An old airplane

Developments

Over the years, aircraft have become more modern, larger and safer. The technique is almost the same, some have aircraft with more features, but the Wright brothers' inventions remains in the modern day aircraft. No one knows how an aircraft will look like in 20 years. I think it will be even more modern, with perhaps shops, restaurants etc. on board. Maybe there are pilots who control the aircraft without these
controlled by robots from the flight tower on earth. One thing is certain and that is that development is ongoing, but perhaps not always for the best ...
The aircraft has about the same structure as when Wright brothers built the first plane. Obviously, some things have changed but the basics are still the same. One of the aircraft's main parts are the wings. The wings do so that the aircraft can take off from the ground and keep himself still in the air.
Aircraft and environment

Aircraft today are both an environmental and health hazard. If you live near an airport, you can hear the plane's engines as a noise. The plane also release pollutants. Despite this, land pollution in Sweden worse than aircraft emissions. One can smell the kerosene for miles from the airports. Kerosene is made from crude oil, what happens if the crude oil one day run out? It is a question that many are trying to avoid but which is vital. Therefore, we need people urgently find a way to operate these oil-dependent gadgets we use in other ways. The aircraft is also negative in that fuel affects the earth's ozone layer, especially the planes flying at the highest elevations. This is the greatest environmental danger when it comes to aircraft. If we do not come in a different way to operate the aircraft with, the ozone layer over time to become thinner than it already is. Without the ozone layer, we burned people on earth up. The same applies to the cars, the more we drive, the more increases the risk that the earth will one day overheating of the ozone layer is too thin. Even the transportation of oil pollutes nature. And how does it look if an aircraft has crashed? Thousands of parts of the airplane are scattered on the earth.

As man has become aware of environmental pollution, have aircraft many times pointed out as a major polluter, especially after more and more cars with hybrid drive and catalysts and more and more buses started to run on ethanol instead of diesel. Proposals come is that more long trips, if possible, should be done by boat or train. Number of flights and aircraft departures decreased down a bit thanks to the international diplomacy of the greater use of video conferencing, rather than meet in person at each meeting. At the same time the aircraft industry to focus more on trying to develop more environmentally friendly aircraft. Nowadays many airlines, airports, aerospace industries and government agencies invested heavily to improve aviation's environmental performance, and they have done because of that flying is the fastest-leading transport and it has paid off. No other mode of transport has proved so successful in the environmental improvement in recent years. The development has been very important for the environment. Newer aircraft have also come up with quieter and more energy-efficient engines that fewer people should be disturbed by the flight. Another thing that air traffic has done for the airlines to disturb fewer people is that they have added flight paths. Lower energy consumption also has led to that aircraft emit less carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide. It has been calculated that emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide per passenger also has halved the past few years. All this industry that makes airplanes, airlines flying them, the airports and the authorities done to get a better flight environment. The aircraft's impact on the environment have thus over the years become much better and we can have a cleaner air.

The new plan is built is more environmentally friendly than the old ones were, but the problem is that it builds more and more planes, but the same number of old planes scrapped not but it will be rather more planes in total which we use to fly with. One would have replaced all the old plan to the new in order to get the best results from an environmental perspective, but it is of course very expensive. More airlines go out of their advertising now that they only fly with environment friendly aircraft as eg Nova Airlines and Apollo trips. These aircraft are perhaps more friendly than some others, but completely harmless to the environment, they can of course not be. There can probably be no airplane as long as you do not come in any other fuel than driving the aircraft with.
Society

As we understood after studying of the aircraft, it has a great significance in the society we now live in. In order to quickly move from one place to another aircraft is a flexible tool. Thanks to the aircraft, we have smoothly been able to explore parts of the world as we formerly did not know existed. It also gives us a great opportunity to travel all over the world on holiday, to visit friends on the other side of the globe, to explore the world needs. Travelling by plane has become something that is common to more and more people, I have been abroad several times and most times we have flown to the destination. It is increasingly common for families to take the plane to get out on vacation.

Air travel can also be a useful tool in the war, both to defend and attack with. But the development also brings some negative things. Unfortunately, research has gone so far forward that man, if we want to, could wipe out large parts of the world with the help of bombs, tea x atomic bombs and air strikes. Military aviation can be roughly divided into the observation flight, bombers, chasing aircraft and transport aircraft. These have different features, evolving in order to deceive the enemy and be able to fly fast and undisturbed for example radar.
Positively by aircraft in war situations is that one can use aircraft to transport relief supplies to war-affected areas. It has been laden planes with blankets and other necessities which then dropped from the air because one does not come to the people who really needed help in ordinary cars on the roads. Then airplanes were very helpful. There is also the aircraft which has been furnished as hospitals with aktumottagningar, operating room, etc., and that one can fly to various places where emergencies arise and where the local hospital is not enough.

Other examples where the aircraft is used in a positive way is the forest fire. This is used a lot in in the US and Australia, where one can save a lot of woods and fields in the old days was completely destroyed when no plane was available and could extinguish the fires. Combating drug trafficking is another thing that aviation helps with, US Air Force Hercules plane to help with a special radar to search for smugglande airplanes and boats.

Weather Reconnaissance is also one thing that aviation helps society, these planes have a special radar that can monitor the weather and warn the public when there are cyclones and hurricanes winds of time in any area.

The aircraft's creation has had a significant impact on individuals and society. Man's dream has for centuries been that the birds could fly. With better and better technology and faster shipments, we can and transporting goods take us roughly where we want over the world in a short time.

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