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History of Egypt

Subject: Geography , History
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Memphis

Memphis was the capital of Egypt under Cheops time and was then well over 15 km long beach area by the Nile. Memphis low across the barren Gizehplatån, where only the pyramids breaking the fate horizon.
Cheops ruled the two kingdoms united Upper and Lower Egypt from a stately palace in Memphis.
Upper and Lower Egypt ranged then from the Mediterranean Sea south to the Nile's first cataract (waterfall).
Memphis with its palaces, stormanshus, workshops, offices, warehouses and port facilities have long since become gravel, now is there only one lerhyddeby surrounded by dusty palm groves.
But you step into the cool stillness in one of the box-like big man's graves surrounding the pyramids, so get in lågrelieferna its richly decorated walls, a stunningly vivid picture of Egypt such as it once was.

AGRICULTURE

Agriculture in ancient Egypt were driven mostly in the area around the Nile. The soil here was particularly fertile because the Nile flooded every year.
Then gather namely highly nutritious sludge on farmland.
Therefore, farmers received in Egypt large harvests.
But this is not enough, the crops need the well water to grow. He built canals to irrigate the fields.
When harvested in Egypt, went farmer before his wife and cut grain with a sickle made of wood, which had blade of flint.
His wife, who came after went with a basket and gathered up the cut grain.

Hieroglyphics and Papyrus

In Egypt they used hieroglyphics when you wrote. These may have been Egyptians interpretation of the scriptures from Mesopotamia, which came several hundred years earlier.
Hieroglyphics word meaning "sacred character".
Hieroglyphics found mostly on the walls of pyramids or on papyrus, which is also used to build boats. Today in papyrus rare.

Papyrus plant is a half-grass, which grows in tropical Africa and in certain places around the Mediterranean. You can eat the root of the papyrus plant, and it probably was not unusual at the time.
But what primarily made papyrus known is that the Egyptians found a way to use papyrus stalks to produce a writing material, a kind of paper.

They made papyrus by cutting papyrus stalks into lengths of 40-50 cm and peeled off the hard outer shell.
The marrow was left mouth to the strips, which would be as wide as possible. After careful sorting spreading it out papyrus next to each other in vertical rows on a damp boards. Since la man a layer on top of the horizontal.
Then soaked it all up with water, and pressed together the layers together and bolted them properly, to get the two layers to fuse together. But that is not enough, to get a smooth and even surface, but it smoothed with an ivory piece or with a clam then coated it finally with a kind of glue to give the surface a final "finish".

In modern times, it has also been built papyrus boats. The most famous is Thor Heyerdahl's "Ra" and "RA2".
"Ra" sank in the Atlantic Ocean when Thor Heyerdahl tried to sail with papyrusbåt from Africa to America. He managed ago with "RA2".

Hieroglyphic solution

In 1798 discovered a stone which was both an inscription in Greek and one in hieroglyphs, of Napoleon and his troops.
Napoleon also had with him 175 learned men and artists.
This stone would be the determining factor to hieroglyphics solution.
The stone was found in the town of Rosetta in the Nile Delta and is now known as the Rosetta Stone.
The Greek of the stone was easy to decipher, because Greek is and was even then, a well-known language, but the hieroglyphs would be harder to crack.
Many learned men tried to decipher the stone, but not until 1822 cracked the mystery. The man who did this was a French language genius by the name of Jean-Francois Champollion. He came on after 11 years of hard working.
The stone were the particular that priests from all over Egypt gathered in Memphis in 196 f.kr to figure out how to pay tribute to King Ptolemy for all his work for the temples and priests. At the meeting it was decided that they would erect a statue of him in all the temples throughout Egypt.
They would also erect a stone, which told about their decision.
Jean-Francois Champollion could do this because he understood that hieroglyphics was based not only on the characters, as they certainly did at first, but they did eventually syllable and sound character.
Hieroglyphic consonants was built-on but you did not write vowels.

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