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Ethology

Topic: Biology , Animals
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Animals may behave in many ways, they have many different behaviors, and one of them is the instinct acts and nyckelretningar. A key irritant is when something triggers a instinkshandling, the son eg if you shake a bit of a bird's stay will cubs begin to gape. Key irritation is the shaking of the estate and instinkshandlingen is when the chicks begin to gape. They do so because if they would just yell straight out'd predators find the nest, so if the mother land on the nest so it starts to shake when the chicks know that their mother is where they begin to gape for food. When they start to gape for food as they perform an instinct act for themselves, but a key stimulus for the mother who then starts feeding the kids (instinct document). Sometimes the animals must have some motivation to perform an instinct act as eg they have a territory to protect a robin without territorial lack the motivation to protect something and are not as aggressive as they with turf. Scoping Documents another variety innate behavior they usually happen when animals are in a difficult situation where they can not decide on what to do, this can make the animal makes a flashover act of scratching or preen their feathers, fur. The different properties of the animals can be improved with experience, most animals learn with time to make things more efficient and faster perhaps more powerful. Trial and error method is one of the ways that lets you learn and evolve as eg a dog must pass a river, the first time it may go straight through and getting soaked and tired due to the currents were strong, so the next time will pass there again, maybe he sees a bridge this time and then test the dog it and notice immediately that if he takes the bridge so he will not become exhausted and soaked. It is also much speeding across the bridge over the river. Most bird animal characterize their kids, that means that kids learn by studying their parents and to follow them until they are old enough to fend for themselves. So if a duck would see a person directly when he hatched spirit would believe that man was his parent and would have followed him. Many animals use their properties to survive in nature, eg snakes they are very adept at detecting vibration and heat it gives them a unique ability to perceive the enemy / prey is and attack it. How do bats see in the dark? Well, they use something called ultrasound. Ultrasound is something that sounds so loud that we humans can not hear it, the bats are using this and the sound from the bats bounce off the cave walls back to the bats who can then calculate how long it took from itself to the wall and back that allows the they can "see" around. Birds navigate though in a completely different way even if they fly like bats, for the use of a mini compass also called magnetic sense this makes so they always know where north is. The animals with a good nose, as dogs can smell the things, what it is and the like. Dogs mark their territory with urine, this will cause another dog can smell to it and know if it is a male or female, there are many other animals that use odor to mark his territory. The deer is one of them they have glands reside at the forehead so when they will butt on the ground, they leave aside his smell so other rådjurar know about it. For the wolves, it is important to know where one's rank in the hierarchy, so they fight quite often, but pretend bothered when they are small. If a wolf would fight another wolf and losing can it show at the've given up by showing its most vulnerable point, the dogs would be neck. The losing dog would then lie down on the ground and show the neck to the winning to show that he has won and that he puts one's life to the winning dog. There are also many other signals wolves emit if you look at their tails so you know, a tail pointing towards the sky show self-confidence and self-assurance, if the tail is relaxed, showing the submission and on the tail between the legs does the wolf shows submission and rädsla.För other animals, then use body contact to show their kindness, rankings and more. This is also a good way to strengthen the bond of the group. Most insects use sound to communicate, grasshoppers are one of them, they create sounds by rubbing their legs against each other. Birds also sing to attract birds of motsatsa sex. Insects' antennae are a means to capture sound it captures only the animals from one's own race for them to rule out other sounds that are unimportant to the insect. When the environment changes so the animals must also might otherwise they die, the animals can adapt quickly have the best chance to survive this makes so that those who do not have enough "properties" die and they'll be fine. To get the fastest, smartest, strongest, etc., There are animals that allows only the strongest males mate with females. The lions are a good example of an animal that is so, to pass on their genes tries to mate with as many females as possible, but if the male leadership is too weak, another male to take the leadership and become the leader in the floc. To increase the chances for survival so usually the animals being selfish as the Cubs schasas the distance from the floc when they are old enough, it can happen that when a lead male overthrown so can the new leadership male killing his kids to get mothers in heat again. This is known as a selfish behavior, so if there is a selfish behavior, there must be a selfless behavior, and there is. Wasps and foxes are one of them, wasps, there is a queen, males and attendants, who can not mate. Wasps take care of each other from cocoon to wasp, while the foxes remain with their parents to help them with the next batch. Most of the animals is usually live in groups, but there are also many who prefer to live alone in order to hide better, there would never go if you were many then it would take too long to hide them all before the predator would come. It is easier to share food too if you are alone when you just need to care about himself, but there are advantages to being in a group as if an enemy would attack it may happen that the animals in the group helps. It's easier to hunt too and it would be difficult to distinguish individuals from groups. There are many ways of defending themselves against predators the most common methods is to run away when the predator comes and hide, while there are animals that have "built hiding places" as the turtle's hard to be capable themselves against strong jaws. Other animals may have tunnels and many ground-nesting birds pretend to be injured to lure the predator away from their nest, then they fly away when they think the predator is far enough away from the nest. Some animals kamoflouera themselves to hide from the animal and infection away without being discovered chameleon is one of the animals, while other animals have guns, as hedgehogs with prickly spines on the back or colorful insects and animals. Wasps are one of them with a 'deterrent warning signal to indicate that I am dangerous, you near me hurt you. Wasps with the striped back, real poisonous frogs and there are rattlesnakes that rattles its tail, this may be the predator to "remember" no later than trying to eat up a rattlesnake.

Etologi data

1.a What is a key irritant?
A signal that triggers intinktshandlingar

1.b What is an instinct action?
It is an action that you perform consciously or unconsciously for a key irritant.

2. Describe the interaction between nyckelretningar and instinct documents in connection with a bird feeding its young.
When the mother bird lands shaken nest that is nyckelretningen for kids they'll be performing an instinct action by gape which is also a key stimulus for the mother who then makes an instinct action by regurgitate its food and give it to their kids.

3. Give examples of key irritant in humans.
When we see someone smile feels that the person is friendly, happy.

4. When does a robin motivation for the attack behaviors against other robins?
When another robin threatening the other's territory. This allows the robin with the territory becomes motivated to attack the other rödhakarna that threatens his territory.

5. What is a breakdown of action?
An action that you perform in doubt, or when one hesitates eg to scratch'm such action.

6.a Give examples of substitute activities in animals.
Preen their fur or feathers

6.b Give examples of arcing actions of people.
Scratching, biting your nails.

Choose an animal and give examples of
7.a Congenital behavior of this animal.
Male dogs lift their hind legs when urinating.

7.b learned behavior of this animal.
One can learn it sit, chasing villains.

8. Explain what is meant by learning by try and error method.
The animal learns from his mistakes and learns how about the effektivas

9. Give examples of how an animal learns something by try and error method.
If a dog trapped in a closed room and accidentally skip to bump the door handle when he learns that the door handle is the way to open the door.

10.a Explain orders embossing.
Embossing is when something newborn kid learns from one's parent who takes care of it, it learns from the parent and how to handle different situations.

10.b Give examples of imprinting of any species.
Chickens, Ducks

10.c What benefit has animals that are characterized?
They study their parents and learn how to survive in the wild.

10.d How can animals be characterized in humans?
When the kid is born so it should look at the person first then the kid believing that the person is his parent

10th What famous scientists introduced the concept of imprinting?
Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) from Austria

11. Give examples of some animals and describe how their experience of the outside world is different from that of humans.
People use the sight of the most while snakes use vibrations, dogs smell, grasshoppers sound, bats also use sound.

12.a Give examples of aggresionshämmande behavior in any animal.
To show his vulnerable point consciously.

12.b Give examples of aggresionshämmande behavior in humans.
Smiles, laughter

13. Explain how wolves communicate with each other (with the tail, with ansiktsutrycker etc.)
If the tail is up, it means self-confidence, relaxed submission and tail between his legs fear and submission.

14. Describe how animals can communicate using scent signals.
Dogs peeing to mark his territory other dogs can smell, Deer gores where their turf, they have scent glands on the forehead.

15. Individuals die but heredity lives on. Give an explanation for this assertion.
Even if an animal dies, will live even genes passed down through his / hons kid.

16. What is meant by natural selection.
The animals have good behaviors can do, those with poorer does not. Nature's way of sorting them out strongest.

17. Give examples of selfish behavior of lions.
Leo leader kills the last lions leader's kids just because the females will be rutting speeds and so the new leader can bring their genes.

18. Give examples of selfless behavior in any animal.
Foxes and hyenas usually stay with their parents until their next litter.

19 Give an explanation of why some animals are prepared to sacrifice his own life to save eg own kids or siblings.
In order to have a blood relationship or they want to increase their chances at their genes come on.

20. What benefits can fish have to live in shoals?
They may confuse predators and becomes more difficult to aim for an individual

21. Give examples of how animals can escape enemies.
Camouflage, poison, warning signs, colors, rapid bone, shell, claws, spikes, horns, teeth, etc.

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