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Evolution

1. When, where and how did life? Describe the theories that exist and specify which one you think is best. Motivate! (even a subject of seminar)

Life was developed for around 4 billion years ago, and how it arose know that even today still do not, but it is almost certain that it originated in the sea or a hot water source.
But there are several hypotheses about how it came about and these hypotheses are,

1. Omnipotence
That something supernatural has created us
2. Uralstringsteorin
Everything appeared spontaneously.
3. Space
Life came from space
4. Chemically
Life arose from the simple substances as hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and oxygen in a predetermined ratio.
Three of the first hypothesis has been rejected because it did not seem to make sense.
The fourth hypothesis is that we believe in today and surely will keep for long, I'll take up two theories for this hypothesis and it is the kemolitotrofa theory and kemoorganotrofa theory.

Kemolitotrofa theory

The kemolitotrofa theory assumes that life began in a hot environment, where sulfur, iron and hydrogen was energies, and that carbon dioxide was the carbon source.
In this theory they are based on the urcellen itself could produce the bulk of substances that it needed to survive. Being able to utilize oxidizable inorganic compounds for their energy called kemolitotrofi and examples of kemolitotrofi exists today only in bacteria.

Since this is not enough for life to arise and therefore continues the theory that the simple organic compounds went by polymerization of molecular chains such as amino acids etc.

Kemoorganotrofa theory

The kemoorganotrofa theory assumes that life began because of a large primordial soup
Thus, due to electrical discharges, ultraviolet light, high temperature or high pressure.
During the 1900s, it was proved that amino acids could be formed of simple inorganic substances if the relationship was right. Later, around the 1950s, it was demonstrated that amino acids were formed by passing electrical discharges flow through the ammonia, methane, water and hydrogen. Although it was shown that the same is formed by strong ultraviolet light or high pressure and temperature as is e.g. in hot springs in the ocean floor.

3. Describe the animal and plant life in that era that are assigned [Proterozoic]

In the era I was assigned there were flatworms, cnidarians, green algae, cyanobakter and common germs certainly more, but during that time there was no plant life on earth, but everything was in the sea, and the sea was a place where it thrived life and where evolution took its speed.

4. Why the dinosaurs died out? Describe the theories that exist and specify which one you think is best. Motivate!

When it comes to how the dinosaurs died out, there are many theories
One of them is that the Earth was hit by a big meteorite, and while broke out violent eruptions on the Indian peninsula, and because of this was covered atmosphere by a layer of dust and ash layers which meant that sunlight could not penetrate to the earth's surface.
All this led to the sea quickly became acidified, dark and cold. This led to many species perished because of it.

Other theories diseases, competition of mammals are all rejected because they have not managed to find something that Styrkar it, because if there would be competition of mammals one would see small teeth marks on dinosaur's skeleton which they have not done. Then when it comes to the theory that the dinosaurs died out because of the disease was also rejected because the birds are a direct descendant of the dinosaurs, and all died except for the birds, it's very unlikely.

I think most of the theory that the dinosaurs died out because of the meteorite
Since there is evidence that it met around the time that the dinosaurs died out and there is evidence that volcanoes on the Indian subcontinent had really violent volcanic eruptions.
And it simply sounds sensible

5. Describe how and where human development and dissemination of Lucy to modern man took place and how we are related to modern human-like apes.

Man's origins began in Africa for about 5-4 million years ago when the first human primates began to stand on two legs then Australopithecus afarensis.
These were about 90-130 cm long and were chimp-like, but walked upright.

For about 1.7 to 0.3 million years ago and our first art in the human evolutionary line
Was Homo Erectus and it was they who first migrated from Africa,
Even where Homo Erectus around 180 cm or longer and brain volume was 900-1200 cm3.
Homo sapiens evolved probably in Africa about 200,000 years ago, Homo sapiens then reached Europe about 40 000 years ago and after a few thousand years replaced the Homo sapiens Neanderthal.

We know that we are related to today's anthropoid apes because of the modern research, by making a DNA test has been established that we are related to about 98%.

6. How is evolution and how can you prove it? Explain the basis of the following examples: Reindeer with long legs run faster than those with short legs.
At a certain time observed purify a population where 20% have short legs, 60% somewhat longer leg and 30% long bones
Reindeer running slowly have less chance to escape hunting predators such as Wolf. Several gengenerationer later observed population again. Now it is only 10% which have short legs, 40% somewhat longer legs and 50% long legs.

One can try to prove evolution by looking at the example In these cleanses the bone structure has changed to adapt the environment, and to get away from a predator. Later, those who have 60% somewhat longer legs and 30% long legs they also have a greater chance than those with short legs to survive allowing their genes for longer legs are passed and the bad disappear because they are eaten up by the wolves.
Since this continues until they are observed again.
"Survival of the fittest"

7. How do you define normal concept of species? What two ways are there for speciation? terms artdefinitionen all organisms?

Art is defined as a group of individuals who can naturally reproduce with each other and that they may receive a sex-viable offspring.

Speciation is as Darwin's original theory by geographic separation, which means a species divided by natural reasons, then evolve groups in different directions and without associating with each other. This leads to a species becomes two species.

Artdefinitionen for everything in animals, plants and minerals.

8. What affects the evolution today's organisms? There is evolution in the word's original sense of the word? Take all the knowledge you now have about evolution and place it in a true perspective, ie thinking for yourself how it affects our world today.

Evolution goes on as it always does for all organisms, but we humans can not notice it because of are speed. We can only research the evolution in the past to calculate the evolution in the future. And of course it affects our world today, organisms adapt to their new relationship is still, for example, animals adapts to humans spread over the earth, fish that adapts to the poisonous waters of lakes, seas. We humans hurries in evolution also with the help of genetic modification that we'll be better but you do not know what evolution can lead to.

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