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Philosophers

Subject: Biographies , Philosophy
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Robert Boyle (1627-1692)

Robert Boyle was born in Ireland and was one of the first scientists who began to doubt that everything was composed of the four elements earth, fire, water and air. He would also like to show that what he said sued by doing experiments. Boyle came by doing experiments on gases are made up of tiny "corpuscles", which had voids between them. Boyle said that Leucippus had been right when he talked about atoms and Boyle said his "corpuscles" was precisely these atoms.

Anaxagoaras, Leuki PPOs & Democritus about 420 f.Kr

For more than 2000 years ago spoke some philosophers from Greece that everything is made of atoms. A Greek philosopher named Anaxagoaras was also argued that all matter was infinitely divisible.

Another man named Leucippus said that everything in the universe consists of only two things namely the atoms and the void. He also said that these atoms were indivisible and so small that you could not see them. Democritus was Leucippus student and was also a philosopher who came from Greece. It is believed that Democritus got their ideas from other philosophers such as Leucippus, but you are not quite sure of that. Democritus agreed with Leucippus that there must be indivisible "things", those he called atoms. The word atom comes from the Greek word "atomos" which means "indivisible" (though now we know that an atom is not indivisible). He believed that everything that was due to the atomic size and shape. When Democritus said there were atoms, he could not prove it, he said, do any experiments.

Another philosopher named Epicurus (300 f.Kr) did not believe in the existence of atoms. The philosopher Aristotle (about 384-322 f.Kr) also did not believe that everything would consist of atoms, arguing instead that everything was composed of the four elements of earth (solid), water (liquid), air (gas) and fire. The theory of the four elements was accepted by scientists, even though there was no actual evidence. They understood not that these elements were constructed of other materials.

Perhaps many people believed in what Aristotle said, because he was a very famous philosopher. Democritus atomic theory was not discussed until hundreds of years later.

John Dalton (1766-1844)

John Dalton came from Britain and were both chemists and physicists. He is known as the "Atomic Theory founder". In 1807, Dalton, a study of the chemical compounds. He examined common substances such as oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen. Dalton came through these experiments that the substances must be constructed of small, indivisible units or atoms. In 1808 he published his famous atomic theory. There, he argued, among other things, that two or more atoms joined together to form a molecule. He also suggested that "all atoms of an element are identical, but they differ from the atoms of all other elements."

Isaac Newton (1642-1727)

Isaac Newton was born in Woolsthorpe, and died in London in 1727. He was a very famous English scientist, mathematician, theologian and alchemist.
Just as Robert Boyle even thought Newton on the existence of atoms that could interact with their forces. Isaac Newton also wanted to prove that everything is composed of atoms by doing experiments. He said that one should first find out the properties of things and then make various theories to explain them.

Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-94)

Antoine came from France and became famous because he managed to balance various topics. Moreover, he had a theory that a substance "is only one element if it is not possible to break down into smaller components." He knew about 33olika elements that he tried to arrange in a table. Lavoisier is often called the "father of modern chemistry" and he fought against the idea that everything would consist of four different elements. Unfortunately, he was later executed during the French Revolution because he was both rich and aristocratic.

Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907)

Dmitry came from Russia and made a table where he divided the different elements that were discovered. As he worked to make the table as he sorted the various subjects according to their characteristics such as weight, volume, etc. He understood that there must be missing some topics and left empty slots which you then could fill in when the substance is discovered. His system is called the periodic system which elements are divided into groups and columns.

Wilhelm Röntgen (1845-1923)
Wilhelm discovered a radiation which he called "X-ray", it is the radiation, which we call the X-rays. The researchers realized later that there was a connection between how the atom was built and X-ray radiation. If you know the frequency of the various elements are X-rays and their atomic numbers could namely also determine the number of protons in the nucleus. For his discovery of X-rays Wilhelm Röntgen received the Nobel Prize in 1,901th

Thomson (1856-1940)

Sir Joseph John Thomson was an English physicist. He received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1906. Thomson was a scientist who examined the atom's inner qualities. He discovered that a certain type of radiation that came from the experiments that Wilhelm Röntgen made previously consisted of small particles. Thomson they called "corpuscles". They are now called electrons. It was thus Thomson discovered the electron. Thomson's theory was that every atom consists of positive charges and a sufficient number of negative electrons that make the atom neutral. Thomson believed that these electrons were inside the nucleus of an atom.

Amedeo Avogadro (1776-1856)

Amedeo Avogadro was an Italian chemist and physicist. He is known for being together with the chemist Stanislao Cannizzaro came up with a theory that meant you could then find out the molecular size and weight. He discovered something that came to be known as Avagadros speech. Just as Dalton showed Avogadro that when atoms combine to form molecules. He could not understand how it happened.

Ernest Rutherford (1871- 1937)

Ernest Rutherford was a nyzeeländsk- British physicist. You usually call him "father of the atom." Rutherford received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908. Rutherford was the head of a laboratory where he made experiments with alpha rays transmitted through the thin metal foils. In such experiments it was discovered that some alpha rays bounced back from metal instead of cutting it through. Thanks to this experiment, Rutherford realized that the whole atom's positive charge must be concentrated in a small nucleus in the center. He did and Niels Bohr model of the atom in which each atom had a positive core surrounded by negative electrons. These electrons orbited the courses and the atoms are held together by an electric force. Rutherford also suggested that there were particles inside the atomic nucleus that had no charge, but he was never able to prove this by experiment. Instead, it was his pupil James Chadwick (1891-1974) who discovered the neutron's existence.

Niels Bohr (1885-1962)

Niels Bohr was a Danish and a renowned physicist, who wanted to find out what the matter actually consisted of. He made a model of the hydrogen atom resembled the solar system. In the middle was a heavy positive nucleus (sun) and just like a planet moving electrons in orbit around it. Niels Bohr also said that the electron is attracted to the core by an electric force. He also said that an electron only moves in a particular way and that the electron gives or receives energy only when it jumps between different tracks. Bohr went against the earlier thought in the sciences. In 1922, Bohr received the Nobel Prize in physics. Bohr also published a "quantum theory" and this allowed the researchers then tried to get to know more about the structure of the atom. We have now found several particles that researchers divided into "quarks" and "leptons". For leptons include, among electrons and the opinion is that the proton consists of three kinds of quarks, which in turn is believed to be indivisible.

Maja Berlin Eklund

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