3.1 Backgrounds to the war
When the Soviet Union and Germany agreed on a non-attack pact of August 1939 it was decided that Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania would become part of the Soviet Union. When the Soviets in October 1939 demanded of Finland and partly to get trade for some islands in the Gulf of Finland and territories on the Karelian Isthmus and at Pechenga against areas in East Karelia, and getting rent Hankoniemi that naval base. Since the negotiation of these requirements stranded, attacked the Soviet Union, Finland, November 30 Finland, which had only 4 million inhabitants was now infested by a country with 108 million inhabitants. The war would eventually hold on for 105 days, and Finland would not really have a chance.
3.2 Thus began the war
When the Soviet Union attacked Finland on 30 November 1939, they began attacking Helsinki and other cities by bombing. Soviet warships shelled the islands of the Gulf of Finland and Karelia coast. Finland formed a coalition government with Risto Ryti as town minister. The government wanted to resume negotiations with the Soviets, but they did not acknowledge the Finnish coalition government. They recognized no other auspices ring than a puppet government with the Finnish-born communist OW Kuusinen as leaders. League of Nations (now the United Nations more) condemned the attack. USSR expelled from the League of Nations and they wanted all the member countries would help Finland with material.
4.1 The role of Sweden
Sweden was not neutral during the Second World War, but Sweden was non-belligerent. After which the Heaven help many countries with material. They helped Finland that includes weapons and food, Sweden also received children from Finland. But there were some families who do not want to send their children to Sweden after that if the parents died so they would not leave the kids behind.
4.2 Finnish war children
During the Finnish Winter War, so about 70,000 children were evacuated to Sweden and other countries. The kids who came to Sweden were up to 14 years. Approximately 4,000 Finnish children were sent to Denmark. Some children were moved between several countries during the war. It was mainly children from the working class who came to Sweden and the other countries. The children who had relatives in Sweden came to them, but those who did not have relatives in Sweden came to completely strangers. Central Finland and the Finnish Nordic Aid helpdesk had responsibility for the children to come to Sweden. Journey to Sweden took place under difficult conditions by boat, train and escape. Those who were sick received care in Sweden. Approximately 15,000 children were adopted by Swedes. For most children were staying in Sweden positive, but for a large part of the children were not so positive. There were many parents who divorced when they took care of the children.
4.3 Swedish Volunteer Corps
Swedish Volunteer Corps, Finland Voluntary initiated by officers in Stockholm. Sweden created a voluntary agency, and it was opened on the first day of the Winter War. Finland Committee became its agencies, and later became Industrial collection Voluntary Corps principal financier. On 12 December 1939, the government approval for an strength about 5000 man (of which no more than 200 permanent employees) against the 7600 requested. On January 16, 1940 was mentioned Corps in radio for the first time.
Corps did not get the same support as the rest of Finland actions.
Later, however, the government's attitude more positive.
Aircraft and other military equipment were made available and the strength was increased to 12 000 men on 9 February.
On 21 December, the first volunteers were sent to Sweden and Tornio. Volunteer Corps was a modern organization, as Chief of Staff CA Ehrensvard proposal.
On January 10 Corps was transferred to a base in chemistry. A force consisting of interceptors, as well as light bombers and transport aircraft. F 19, organized by the Swedish Air Force, was then the only Finnish plan throughout northern Finland. The first battle, which was a reinforced battalion was inserted Feb. 3 northeast of Rovaniemi. Kårchef in the battalion was Major General Ernst Linder, who was a veteran of the Finnish Civil War. It was also about Ehrensvard.
On February 25, Linder took over responsibility for the whole of northern Finland.
In addition to the Corps were also three Finnish battalions.
Of Volunteer Corps was two battle groups and a special forces constituted.
Linder was standing against a Soviet army with at least three divisions, only Salla nine battalions against the five Finnish and Swedish.
Corps also contained some special forces units. Anti-aircraft artillery empty coastal artillery was under the Corps. In total 8,260 Swedes and of them 469 professional officers and 727 Norwegians engaged in Corps Total fallen 33 Swedish and two Norwegians. Of these, six officers, three aviators. Ten of those killed fell last day, some were prisoners of war.
Many volunteers came never to fight, then they must be trained. Finnish government wanted dressings of Volunteer Corps. They would be trained and able to be deployed directly into combat. As was the case only with the F 19 There were many among the Swedish volunteers who fought not until the last days of the war. There was some effort except aviation, of limited military value. Voluntary Corps transportation units did, however, a lot of effort on the Karelian Isthmus. At the end of the war they helped with the evacuation of the Finnish civilian population, and drove them back from the Russian regions to the Finish. The cost of the entire Corps stake was 18.85 million SEK. Finland paid a £ 670,000 salary and other expenses were covered through fundraising.
Fifth major types
Most battles were fought at the Karelskanästet which is located between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga. Finland's main defense was called Mannerheim Line consisted of bunkers and field fortifications. One of the major types fought at the two small villages Suomussalmi and Kuhmo. Soviets would penetrate Finland, where it is narrowest. The battle lasted from early December 1939 until 18 januari 1940.
The Finns attacked the Soviet 163nd div. December 8 and succeeded in rolling back the Soviet division's 163 positions. It had also surrounded the 163nd and 44th Division.
When the Finns attacked, they used most often Motti. This means that both surrounds, then isolate the enemy troops in small groups and then nedkämpar them (see Mottitaktiken). When they fought, it was sometimes about -30 degrees cold, but the Finns had an advantage because they knew the pace better. On December 11, had been pressed back the 163nd Div. several mil. It also had nearly annihilated the 163nd division entirely. In late January, the Finnish troops attacked the 163nd and 44th div. The Finnish troops that was not even a division, nearly annihilated the Soviet troops to the last man.
The Finns continued to push back the Soviet army to the border. The Soviet army attacked even Kemijärvi own big losses. The Finns pushed them back to their stronger positions at Märkäjärvi and later took a Swedish volunteer corps over the Finns standings at Märkäjärvi. The Finns had to end with his guerrilla tactics and experience of string managed to win an important battle over a superior opponent.
6.1 Finland's tactics before the war
Finland would try to stop the Russian invasion, which came from the East. Most of the Finnish army were placed at the Karelian nest, they were also placed in communities along the entire eastern border.
Finland had not had a tactic of war before the war and it was difficult to think of a strategy quickly. Finland had a shortage of war material and the experience of battle. Finland had no anti-tank and get armor troops. Due. deficiencies should result in Finland would have a cautious and defensive tactics. But that did not happen. The Finns used instead an aggressive tactic that really surprised the Russians.
By using the surprise attack so you could keep it hold its own against the Russians. The Finns keep themselves happily to the forest after which there was excellent hiding places, they found a good tactic was to use sneak cases in the forest. They did not attack in open terrain after which Russia had a strong artillery, armor and air.
Finland used mainly by covering troops and field armies.
Cover the troops were almost only made up of less experienced soldiers.
Only a third had completed a full year course.
How to Say thank the troops out:
A cavalry brigade
Three independent jaeger battalion
Division staff and headquarters company
Three infantry regiments
A light field artillery regiment
A lightweight title on a headquarters company and a squadron and a bike company
A field replacement battalion
Two div. signal companies
Two pioneering companies
An ammunition depot Company
A div. ammunition column
A field hospital
A sanitary Company
A veterinary company
A transport company
6.2 Russian attack plans
Russia had expected a short war in a few weeks, but that did not happen. Russia's main anfallsvåg would come from Karelia in the southeast of Finland. They would also try to cut Finland in half by attacking the Suomussalmi where Finland is at its narrowest. They would also try to push back the Finnish army against West Coast. But not many of these plans worked.
6.3 Comparison between Finnish and Russian tactics
The Red Army had great experiences of war that is not the Finnish army had.
The Russians had already before and during the First World War built up tactics and gained experience.
Even so, could not the Red Army utilizing these.
Something that was shared between Finland and Russia's tactic was that it was very offensive. Russians underestimated the Finnish units' tactics, after which they were a superpower.
The Finnish exercisreglementena field and was content to leave instructions for the different modes, they refrained from schematic analysis approach. The Russian regulations governing was then more schematic and categorical.
When it came to artillery, so it was a pretty big difference. Finland usually concentrated their artillery in one place, while Russia spread out its artillery at many different places.
Russia had plenty of tanks and they were very important to Russia during the war, but they had to stick to the roads. It gave the Finnish army a good opportunity to outflank them. The Finns were very good skiers and they could move quickly over large areas, and it made it easy to encircle the Russian forces. When the Finns had surrounded the Russian troops as they attracted them apart into smaller groups. The Finns were also dressed in white, it meant that they were difficult to see and the Russians discovered them not so easy.
Carl Gustav Mannerheim was born June 4, 1867 and died on Jan. 28, 1951 in Switzerland. He went in the cadet school in Hamina, after he was admitted to Nikolajevska Cavalry School in St. Petersburg. He graduated in 1889 and after one year's service, he was transferred to Poland. In 1905 he participated in the Russian - Japanese war and was appointed colonel. After the war he returned to Finland, but in the years 1906-1908 he commanded over the Russian - Chinese border.
In 1909 he was appointed Head of Ulanregemente in Poland in 1911 and to major general. During World War I he commanded several units. In 1917 he was transferred to the reserve forces, but after the October Revolution, he retired to live a civilian life in Finland. In mid-1918 he was appointed general of the Finnish army. During the Finnish Civil War, he initiates the decisive battle in Tampere. When he was 16 May triumphed in Helsinki, so the pressure was on him too much and he resigned. After World War I he was appointed regent, and he used his contacts to get food aid from the United States and Britain.
In 1919 he participated in the Finnish presidential election but lost big against KJ Stahlberg. After the presidential election, he was the head of the Finnish Red Cross and created General Mannerheim Child Welfare. In 1931 he was appointed by the new elected President PE Svinhufvud defense council president, he was also named Field Marshal in 1933, when Finland in 1939 negotiated with the Soviets about their requirements for certain areas, he wanted to Finland would approve them. But the government wanted to go a different route and that led to the Finnish Winter War, November 30, 1939.
During the war he was the commander in chief, and managed to defend Finland good. In 1940 he negotiated with the Western Powers that led to a short-lived peace. In the postwar period he negotiated with both Sweden and volunteer corps and Germany for war materials. On 4 June 1942 he was appointed Marshal of Finland, and in 1944 President. When he broke ties with Germany and Finland went over to the Allies. This meant that Germany burned down all the houses in the entire Finnish Lapland. Mannerheim resigned in 1946 after a brief illness, and lived from 1946 to 1951 in Switzerland, where he wrote his memoirs. He died Jan. 28, 1951.
8 Interview with Raija Kanervo (Grandma)
My grandmother Raija Kanervo was 7 years in the Finnish Winter War. She lived in the village and Kiikala Johanneslundsvägen, located between Turku and Helsinki. Just three kilometers from Johanneslundsvägen is Kiikalas airport which was built in the Finnish Winter War began. There was rationing on all food, but her mother could not buy food because black. that she had quite a lot of money and that she was in touch with the people who brought food in Finland. One of several rations were milk. An adult got 2 cups of milk a day, a child got 4 cups of milk a day and a baby up to a year got 9 cups of milk a day. My grandmother never had to be hungry when she went to bed.
Her father Thomas was 40 years old when the war began. He had to go to the front and take him for dead soldiers. He was at Syväri, Äänislinna and Kollaa. He was only home once throughout the Finnish Winter War. Grandmother's mother took care of those from the village who had died. One day, their neighbor's husband home, he had his head blown off by a grenade, and the picture of him, my grandmother never forget. When the Russians would bomb Helsinki as they flew mostly over Kiikala. When they had bombed Helsinki saw my grandmother clouds of smoke from there.
On several occasions, the Russians would bomb the Kiikalas airport and as always when Russian bombers came, it hit one of the residents of Johanneslundsvägen a great time walking and they ran into the woods to hide.
The airport was not hit.
My grandmother was not so much in the school during the war, but when the war was going well and the Finns pushed the Russians back then could go to school. There were about 10 pieces from Johanneslundsvägen who died during the war. Grandma found out that the war began on radio and newspapers. Throughout the summer of 1939 so talked all adults that they were so afraid that there would be war. A few weeks before the outbreak of war as were all men from about 20-60 years a letter stating that they would gather for a meeting in Kiikalas Civic.
The longer the war lasted, the more torn clothes and shoes. Everyone in the village also got help picking potatoes and gather other foods such as fish from the lake. There was no one from the village where she lived, went to Sweden but my grandfather Jaakob and his sister Aira was in Sweden during part of the war.
Most of Finland did not like Carl Gustav Mannerheim. They should be that he was a butcher. But those who were wealthy did not like it. They thought he was really good because. that when they sponsored the Finnish arm so they had to include a diploma and medals. But there were some who were not so rich who also sponsored the war.
When they sent their jewelry and other things with gold and other precious things to the state they got back a silver ring.
But it was not enough silver to when my grandmother looked at their neighbor's ring as it was black on the inside and silver turns black.
My grandmother found out what happened in the war through radio and newspapers.
But there was much propaganda about how well it went in the war.
But mostly it was just outright lies, but sometimes when it went bad so they wrote about it in the papers or they said it on radio broadcasts.
When the Finns won a major battle as there were large placards on what had happened in the battle.
On the radio they said throughout the summer of 1939, how to protect themselves if they heard the alarm and fly it and talked about it would be a war in Finland that summer.
9th Combat Material
9.1 Finnish aircraft and tanks
Finland had quite a good aircraft, but most Western powers felt that the Finnish plan was outdated and not held for the European standard. But the Finnish plan fought well against the Russian modernization plan. They had about six different types of aircraft.
Fokker D XXI which was built in Holland and was a fighter.
It was rebuilt to meet the Finnish license.
But there was not enough with the English Bristol Mercury engines were original engines to Fokkern, so the Finnish aircraft factories were build on the nose so that the American Twin Wasp engine producing 825 horsepower matched.
Fokkern was equipped with four 7.9 mm machine guns with 300 rounds per machine gun.
It had a top speed of 435 km / h.
Wing width was 7.95 m and the length was 5.11 m. Peak height was 9600 m and the longest flight distance 950 km.
The weight was 2170 kg fully loaded.
See also figure 1
Fokker CV-E was first used by the Finnish aviation in 1927 and well into the Second World War it was used as reconnaissance and light bomber. It was totally outclassed by the Russian fighters, but you used it in the wilderness, and at low altitudes. The Finnish version of the aircraft had a Bristol Pegasus IIM-2 engine of 730 hp. It was equipped with two 7.9 mm machine guns and a stand for a number of light bombs. The top speed was 235 km / h. Wingspan was 13.85 m and the length was 8:36 m. Peak height was 6500 m and the weight 1870 kg fully loaded.
Fokker CX was a reconnaissance and bomber used by Finland from 1935 It was used throughout the Second World War. CX would replace CV-E. It was like the CV-E is inferior to the Russian fighters. It survived by trying to stay away from the Russian fighters. CX had a Bristol Pegasus XXI engine at 835 hp. It was equipped with two 7.9 mm machine guns and up to 400 kg of bombs. The top speed was 340 km / h. Wingspan was 11.8 m and length 9.2 m. Peak height was 8200 m and the longest flight distance 850 km. The weight was 2500 kg fully loaded.
Bristol Blenheim was a light bomber when it was introduced in 1935 was faster than most fighters. In Finland, it was rebuilt and had great success when it served during the Winter War. But it had little protection for the crew and fuel. It had two Bristol Mercury VII engines of 840 hp per engine. It was equipped with two 7.7 mm
machine guns and up to 450 kg bombs. The top speed was 460 km / h. Wingspan was 17.2 m and length 12 m. Peak height was 8350 m and the longest flight distance 1750 km. The weight was 5625 kg fully loaded. It had a crew of three men.
Blackburn Ripon IIF was a torpedo and reconnaissance aircraft that was introduced in 1928 but between 1931 and 1934 as they were built in Finland. When the Finnish Winter War began it was quite outdated. It had a Bristol Pegasus IIM 3 engine at 580 hp. It was equipped with two 7.9 mm L-33 machine guns and one 18-inch torpedo, or up to 740 kg bombs. The top speed was 190 km / h. Wingspan was 13.9 m and 12 m loin. Peak height was 2600 m and the longest flight distance 2000 km. The weight was 3360 kg fully loaded.
Bristol Bulldog IVA was a reconnaissance aircraft that served between 1939 and 1940 with great success. It had a Brit Seat Mercury VIS 2 at 775 hp. It was equipped with two 7.9 mm machine guns. The top speed was 360 km / h. Wing width was 9.3 m and length 7.7 m. Peak height was 10,000 m and the weight was 1800 kg fully loaded.
Finland also had the 6-ton Vickervagnen who was a tank. But it was an easy target for the Russian tanks and had a hard time getting up in the snow.
9.2 Russian aircraft and tanks
Russia had both superior tanks and aircraft during the Finnish Winter War.
The Russians used three types of tanks during the Finnish Winter War.
Here is the Russian tanks:
BT 7-2 was a light tank. It began operations in 1935 on this tank, you could remove the bands, in order to go to a higher speed on the roads. It was absolutely excellent when it was introduced and made the Russians were able to develop their T-34th
It had a modified Liberty M-17T aircraft engine of 450 hp and was equipped with a 45 mm cannon with 188 grenades, two 7.65 mm to 2394 cartridges. It was 5.6 m, 2:36 m wide and 1.90 m high. The top speed was 70 km / h and maximum mileage of 500 km. It had a crew of 3 men and weighed 13.8 tons.
T-28M was a medium-heavy tank. It was taken in use in 1933, but was not as effective as the Russians had hoped for it was too heavy when you rebuilt it from the original T-28B. Therefore it became even go lower. It had 12-cylinder M-17 cylinder engine with 500hkr. It was fitted with a 76.2 mm gun with 70 grenades, four 7.62 mm machine guns with 7938 cartridges. It was 7:45 m long, 2.80 m high and 2.80 m wide. The top speed was 30 km / h and longest mileage 150km. It had a crew of 6 and weighed 33 tons.
T35 was a heavy tank that was planned in 1935, it would be equivalent to the French Char 2C. It was made to fight against infantry and anti-tank guns.
It had a 12-cylinder M17 engine of 500 hp. It was fitted with a 76.3 mm howitzer cannon with 100 shells, Two 45 mm cannon with 226 shots and five 7.62 mm machine guns with 10000 shots. It was 9.85 m, 3:45 m high and 3.25 m wide. The top speed was 30 km / h and longest mileage 150km. It had a crew of 10 men and weighed 50 tons.
The Russians used four kinds of aircraft. They were often superior than the Finnish.
Here they are:
Pojlkarpov I-16 was the first fighter with retractable landing gear. It has been in 1934 It was used during the Spanish Civil War by the Republicans. It had its biggest advantage of great strength and maneuverability. It had a Shvetsov M-62 engine of 1100 hp. It was equipped with two Sjkas machine guns with 450 cartridges per machine gun, two 20 mm SjVak guns 90 grenades per gun and six 82 mm RS-82 rockets. Wingspan was 9 m and length 6.10 m. The top speed was 520 km / h and the longest flight distance 700 km. It had a peak height of 9,000 m and weighed 2050 kg fully loaded. See image 2
In 1 -4 Ilyushin DB-3 was the most widely used Soviet medium bomber during the war. Its main advantage was that it had such a long range. It had two M-6 engines of 1100 hp each, and was equipped with three 7.62 mm machine guns and up to 1,350 kg bombs, or a 18-inch torpedo. Wingspan was 21:45 m and the length of 14:25 m. Peak height was 9350 m and weight 9270 kg when full. It had a crew of four men.
Tupolev ANT -6 TB-3 was the most common Soviet bombers in the early 1930's. It was later used as a transport and parachute troop planes during World War II, but it served as a bomber during the Winter War. It had four AM-34 engines of 839 hp each. It was equipped with eight 7.62 mm machine guns and up to 2000 kg bombs. Wingspan was 40.5 m and 24.4 m length. Longest flight distance was 2000 km with 1,000 kg bombs.
The top speed was 250 km / h and the peak height was 5000 m. Weight was 17860 kg fully loaded and it had a crew of eight men.
Tupolev ANT -40 SB 2BIS was a bomber used during the Spanish Civil War. After the Civil War they changed it on the plane and gave the much better engine, propellers, efficient armament and new instruments. The crew also got better space. It had two engines M.103 at 990 hp each. It was equipped with four 7.62 mm machine guns and up to 650 kg bombs. Wingspan was 21.5 m and the length of 12.65 m. The top speed was 450 km / h and the peak height was 8500 m. Longest flight distance was 2300 km. The weight was 5450 kg when full. It had a crew of three men.
10 After the War
The Finnish Winter War ended on March 13th 1940, but already on 6-7 March, a Finnish delegation headed by the prime minister Risto Ryti decided to try to make peace. So they flew to Moscow via Stockholm. On 12 March signed peace agreement. On March 13, the fighting ceased. Then Viborg situated in Karelia even Finnish.
But just days later, so gave Finland the southeastern parts of the country, where the towns of Vyborg, Kexholm and Sordavala lies.
Finland also handed over an area east of Salla and his part of Kalastajasaarento where Finland had a silver mine, which was the town of Pechenga.
See also figure 3
The city of Hanko located in southwestern Finland between Helsinki and Turku toward the archipelago was rented as a naval base to Russia for 30 years. The approximately 430 000 inhabitants who lived in the areas that now was Russian, fled to the areas that lay west of the new border. The Finnish Winter War of Finland cost 22,451 dead and 45,384 wounded. Russia had taken many prisoners about 700 Pimples, after the war was no longer 1406 Pimples. The Russian forces suffered heavy losses in their war against Finland. It is not known how many died with safe up to 10 000 deaths and nearly as many wounded (and there may be more), Finland took nearly 5,600 prisoners.
Finland had fared against a superior enemy suffered much of the war.
I thought it was fun to work with the Finnish Winter War. I thought it was amazing that Finland could do so well against the Soviets. I thought it was right for Sweden to help Finland with materials and taking care of Finnish children. What was bad was that they were cooperating with Germany was "everyone's" enemy. I think that Finland would have never asked for help from Germany, but they would have allied with England and France. If they would have allied with them would probably not Russia have attacked them.
I did not think Finland had some very good combat tactics as Motti, or that they were so bad aircraft. They were outdated according to all the other countries, but Finland showed that they could cope with the plan. I think I have managed to find out all the facts that I wanted to know. It was hard to find was how civilians coped. Even when I did my interview, so I found out more. What was most interesting was that they could remain a separate country, and that they could fight so bravely.
Something that was a little scary was that they could ally with Germany.
One thing I did not expect, was that there were so plenty of food in Finland.
In the meantime, I have written the work I thought a lot about how it was during the war. I have tried to put me into their lives, further on how they fought and how difficult conditions were for those who were soldiers. I think it's been fun to write this work and it was so good to find facts and to write it.
I have learned more than I really should have taken out. One important thing I did was to interview my grandmother. I think it is extremely important to try to find out everything they know. It is important for a few years, they will not live longer. I think it was great that Finland could backfire Russia, for it shows that even a small country like Finland can do so well against such a big country. I hope that those who read my work, war, should understand that a war might take place as close to us as our own fir country, that we were once the same country.based on 11 ratings Finnish Winter War,