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Aircraft

The first attempts to fly

The first attempts made to try to fly was made by the Chinese for around 1000 years ago with the help of kites and hot air balloons. In Europe, Leonardo da Vinci sketched the first designs for the aircraft; an almond-powered design with flapping wings, almost like a bird's wing. He also made the first sketches of a helicopter-like construction and a parachute. Unfortunately, that was Leonardo's work no longer than sketches on a paper, because you could not find some kind of power source that could get the "aircraft" in the air. Later people started sketching and experimenting on hot air balloons. During the 1700s, invented one hydrogen balloons, with the result that they began experimenting with propulsion. The first true airship came first with piston engines, which were invented around the 1900s. During the late 1800s began to experiment in many different directions with flying and with the principle heavier than air.

Otto Lilienthal was probably the first person to fly a glider that was floating freely. He made many experiments and measurements on different models and also tested with Manning glide flights. Which went like that. Before he got out to test their theories of flight with the help of a piston engined propeller so he perished during an experiment. Efforts were also on aerodynamic studies and trials in France and England, but none succeeded because they do not here find any power source that worked well enough. Man tried to use steam engines, but air machines became too heavy to lift then.

Some information about the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright

The two brothers are better known as "The Wright Brothers", as they share the honor of having explored the aerodynamics. (Aerodynamics is the study of the air flow around as eg aircraft) Wright Brothers ran a bicycle shop in Dayton, Ohio but had long experimented and studied the flight. After Lilienthal's death began the Wright brothers experiment with his plans. They looked through Lilienthal attempts and constructions that eventually enabled them to build the first glider. This occurred in 1900. Several flights were carried out and encouraged by the results began the Wright brothers build a bigger plan. They began to experiment with several different models and built an internal combustion engine that was installed in a biplane with two propellers excess. The Wright brothers brought an aircraft interest worldwide. On December 14, was made the first attempt with Flyer 1 but because Wilbur was above the steering so he lifted the plane sharply so that the plane crashed, the plane went down but was repaired as quickly.

On December 17, 1903 at Kitty Hawk was the first flight with the engine, the aircraft was later renamed to "The Flyer". Orville flew for 12 seconds and the flight distance was 36.5 meters.

On March 3, 1908 an agreement was signed with the Frenchman Lazare Weller. The agreement was that Wilbur Wright would make some flight tests and when they were done would Lazare Wellers companies sell and use the Wright flying machines in Europe. The brothers decided that Orville would penetrate the American market at the same time opened up while Wilbur went to France. On August 8, 1908, Wilbur flew its first demonstration flight at the races Hunaudieres. Several active airmen were among the spectators. Wilbur started and steps, made a few turns and landed after 1 minute and 45 seconds. For space reasons, the business was moved a few weeks later at a military training ground at Auvours. There were also built a simple hangar for his Flyer IV. On September 28, 1908, Wilbur won a prize of 5,000 francs by flying 24 times between the two marks on the 1 kilometer apart. For the feat, he received French aero club's gold medal. The French company decided that it would manufacture 50 Flyer IV for the European market and that Wilbur would train three pilots. It started a flying school in Pau.

To flight school in Pau will also Wilbur's siblings Katherine and Orville, where Katherine serves as their secretary. Spring 1909 Go Wilbur, Orville and his sister Katherine to Rome, where it performs a number of air shows and educates two Italian officers to pilots. In May 1909, they travel back to Dayton to construct a new aircraft that is intended for the U.S. Army. After sales contract signed in August 1909 traveling Katherine and Orville to Berlin to continue marketing in Europe, while Wilbur tired of flying, stayed in the U.S. to train a few officers of the Army Signal Corps. After they delivered the first U.S. air machines to the U.S. Army, Wilbur decided to withdraw from the flight and factory operations. He died in 1912 of Typhoid fever.

An English newspaper put a prize of 1000 pounds to the first flag over the English Channel. The winner was Frenchman Louis Blériot flew the route in July 1909. After the airline industry began to develop rapidly. Wright brothers' invention was a success, humans could now for the first time fly! 1931 was built the first plane that was driven by four motors, which in total could take 16 passengers and could fly at 2000 meters altitude. The World Wars were terrible but it gave the aircraft's development a boost during the First World War had a managed to construct a plane that could reach 200 km / h and in the second a plane that could fly over 650 km / h

Aircraft

Aircraft is the name for an aircraft used for the transport of people and goods. The driver called the pilot. An airplane taking off and landing usually at an airport. A passenger aircraft is an aircraft which is intended to carry passengers and their luggage. A cargo plane used to transport goods. Aircraft can also be armed and used as fighter aircraft.

For an airplane to fly, it must generate a lifting force is equal to its weight and have a thrust that is at least equal to its drag. An aircraft specifically designed for aerobatics often have a symmetrical airfoil to have good maneuverability in all flight modes, even in the supine position. There are two types of engines, either propeller engines or jet engines. The jet engine works by compressors on the front of the engine compresses the air and press it into the combustion chamber under high pressure. They inject fuel and combusted continuously. Aircraft operated by affecting the air flow with the rudder on the trailing edge of the wings, fin and stabilizer, ailerons, rudder and elevator. The ailerons usually sits at the tip of the wings and the aircraft can be tilted laterally to facilitate turning. The fin airplane may follow against the inflowing air and with the rudder on the fin steering pilot accurate in yaw. The elevators on the horizontal stabilizer, the guide nose of the plane up or down and used when the aircraft is to increase or decrease the angle of attack. During takeoff and landing, flips out flaps on the trailing edge. This also provides a higher drag, which helps the plane to slow down before landing. You can get extra wind resistance with air brakes, which usually sits on top of the wing and is used when the aircraft is decelerating after landing or in the air.

Development

Over the years, the aircraft has become more modern, larger and safer. The technique is almost the same, some have aircraft with more features, but the Wright brothers' inventions are left in today's modern aircraft. No one knows how an aircraft will look like in 20 years. I think it will be even more modern, with perhaps shops, restaurants etc on board. Maybe there are pilots who control aircraft without these

controlled by robots from the flight tower on earth. One thing is certain and that is that the development is ongoing, but perhaps not always for the best ...

The aircraft has roughly the same structure as when Wright brothers built the first plane. Obviously, some things have changed but the basics are still the same. One of the airplane's main parts are the wings. The wings make so that the aircraft can lift off the ground and keep himself still in the air.

Aircraft and environment

Aircraft today is both an environmental and health hazard. If you live near an airport, you can hear the plane's engines as a noise. The plane also release pollutants. Despite this, land pollution in Sweden worse than aircraft emissions. One can smell the kerosene a mile away from the airports. Kerosene is made from crude oil, what if one day the crude oil runs out? It is a question that many are trying to avoid but which is vital. Therefore, we need people urgently find a way to operate these oil-dependent gadgets we use in other ways. The aircraft is also negative in the sense that the fuel affects the earth's ozone layer, especially the planes flying at the highest altitudes. This is the biggest environmental hazard when it comes to aircraft. If we do not come in a different way to operate the aircraft with, the ozone layer over time to become thinner than it already is. Without the ozone layer, we burned people on earth up. The same is true with cars, the more we drive the more increases the risk that one day it will overheat of the ozone layer is too thin. Even transportation of oil pollutes nature. And how does it look if an aircraft has crashed? Thousands of parts of the aircraft are spread on the earth.

As people have become aware of the environmental degradation, the aircraft often been identified as a major environmental villain, especially after an increasing number of cars with hybrid drive and catalysts and more and more buses started to run on ethanol instead of diesel. Proposals received is that more long trips, if possible, should be done by boat or train. The number of flights and aircraft departures reduced down a bit thanks be to international diplomacy in the greater use of video conferencing, rather than to meet in person at each meeting. In parallel, the aircraft industry to invest more in trying to develop more environmentally friendly aircraft. Nowadays many airlines, airports, aerospace industries and governments invested heavily to improve aviation's environmental performance, and they have done because of that aviation is the fastest-leading transport and it has paid off. No other mode of transport has proved so successful in improving the environment in recent years. This development has had a significant impact on the environment. Newer aircraft have also come up with quieter and more energy-efficient engines for fewer people to be disturbed by aircraft. Another thing that ATC has done for the airlines to disturb fewer people is that they have put on the flight paths. Lower energy consumption also led to that aircraft emit less carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide. It has been calculated that emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide per passenger also has halved the past few years. All this industry that makes the planes, the airlines that fly them, airports and authorities have done to get a better flight environment. The aircraft's environmental importance has therefore over the years become much better and we can have a cleaner air.

The new aircraft being built are more environmentally friendly than the old ones were but the problem is that it builds more and more planes, but the same number of old planes scrapped not but it becomes rather more planes in total we use to fly with. One would have replaced all the old plan to the new one to get the best results for the environment, but it is of course very expensive. More airlines go out of their advertising now that they only fly with green aircraft, as eg the Nova Airlines and Apollo trips. These aircraft may be more environmentally friendly than some others, but completely harmless to the environment, they surely can not be. That may not be as long as the aircraft is not going on any other fuel than driving with the aircraft.

Society

As we understood after studying whether the aircraft has a great importance in the society we now live in. In order to quickly move from one place to another, the aircraft is a flexible tool. Thanks to the aircraft, we have seamlessly been able to explore parts of the world as we previously did not know existed. It also gives us a great opportunity to travel across the world on vacation, to visit friends on the other side of the planet, to explore the world more. Travelling by plane has become something that is common to more and more people, I have been abroad several times and most times we have flown to the destination. It is increasingly common for families to take the plane to come out on vacation.

Air travel can also be a useful aid in war, both to defend and attack with. But development also some negative things. Unfortunately, research has gone so far forward that man, if we want to, can wipe out much of the world by using the bombs, tea x atomic bombs and airstrikes. Military Aviation can be roughly divided into the observation plane, bombers, chase aircraft and transport aircraft. These have different features evolving in order to deceive the enemy and be able to fly fast and undisturbed for example radar.

Favorably with aircraft in war situations is that one can use aircraft to transport relief supplies to war-torn areas. It has loaded plan with blankets and other necessities since dropped from the air because they do not come to people who really needed the help of regular cars on the roads. Then airplanes were very helpful. There are also aircraft which have been furnished to hospital with aktumottagningar, operating room, etc., which you can fly to different places where emergencies occur and where the local hospital is not enough.

Other examples where the aircraft is used in a positive way is the forest fire fighting. This is used a lot in in the U.S. and Australia, and where you can save a lot of forest and land which in the past was completely destroyed when no plane was available and could extinguish the fires. Combating drug trafficking is another thing that helps with the flight, U.S. Air Force has Hercules aircraft to help with a special radar to search for smugglande aircraft and boats.

Weather watching is also one thing that aviation helps society, these planes have a special radar that can monitor the weather and warn the public when there are cyclones and hurricane-force winds on in any area.

The aircraft's inception has had a significant impact on individuals and society. Man's dream has for centuries been, to which the birds fly. With better and better technology and faster transportation, we can transport goods and take us roughly where we want over the world in a short time.

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