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Antiquity and the Middle Ages

Subject: History
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- Oral literature

Oral literature has a very long history. It played a major role in "ordinary" people for several thousand years. Most could not read but well listen to wandering around the singer and storyteller. The Iliad and The Odyssey was originally a such a story.

- Epic

A story in verse about gods, heroes, adventure and supernatural events. It turned mainly to the aristocracy and was a kind of comedy with elements of mundane and more serious issues.

- Epik

Verse story handed down by about wandering storyteller rhapsodists and then also down. One of the first, largest and most celebrated is Homer Iliad and Odyssey. Greek epic poetry remained a model and inspiration for European poetry until the present.

- Drama

Theatrical performances that had its beginning in köruppträdanden at parties held at vingudens Dionysus honor. Festivals evolved to be over five days played several tragedies and comedies which are then judged by a jury. The wealthy burghers stood for the economy.
The great dramatists were Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. King Oedipus, Orestia and Medea are some of the approximately 30 large works that were preserved.

- Poetry

Comes from the word lyre. For poetry, we expect poems that are often raised singing and ackompanjamang of flute or lyre. Mostly it was amateurs of the aristocracy who devoted himself to poetry. The teacher Sappho of Lesbos wrote in one of his poems:
Here about the source murmuring wave a vindils
cool blast drawing by apelkronan,
and from the leaves soporific rustle drizzle
over us torpor.

- Prose

In addition to epic poetry, lyric poetry and drama was written in Ancient Greece a variety of historical works, textbooks, philosophical writings and fables. All these works are called prose. Aesop's fables accounted for, animal tales with a moral. Plato and Socrates were the great philosophers.

- Versmått

Verse setup of the ancient Greek epic called hexameters ("sexmått") and means that each line contains six stressed syllables. The rhythm is descending where a stressed syllable is followed by one or two obetonande.

- Catharsis

Catharsis - "purification" is the experience that playwrights wanted to give the audience through their pieces that contained a sort of school life (answers to vital questions).

- Hubris

Hubris means in Greek hubris. It is that belief in themselves more capable than you may have. The fate and the gods decided everything and therefore punished by the courageous people.

- Alliteration

Alliteration - "literal rhyme" is an artifice used by, among others Norse poets. This means that the lines held together by words that start with the same or similar audio:
grieved-limitless-cruel, heard the hall-whole

- The tale

Icelandic prose narratives written in the Middle Ages. The sagas about fights, killings, blood feuds and outlawry, but also about the sense and friendship. The sequence of events has been the central feature of the tales. The style is simple with few metaphors and literary embellishments. The most famous and extensive saga Niels story.

- The summary

Introduction to a larger work in which the author presents the environment and provides a basis for the actual content. An example of this is the introductory chapter in Boccaccio's Decameron collection of short stories.

Medieval literature, the church and the feudal system

The medieval society can be described as a pyramid. At the top ruled the King (usually with limited influence). Almost as great powers had his vasaller- nobleman who ruled over their field and who vowed allegiance to the King and his warriors. A large part of the land belonged to the powerful bishops and monasteries. On the bottom of the social heap lived in harsh conditions the large massan- peasants. Such a system is called feudal and is the Latin word for counties.

In the new upper class that was formed at the lord of the manor court developed a special, privileged culture. Knight in shining armor impressed maidens, musicians played the last song and the court ladies and gentlemen amused themselves by listening to berättlsen of wars, crusades and couples. One of the most beloved novels of chivalry was the love story of Tristan and Isolde.

In the tests in the South of France was born during the 1100s a poetry that became known as the Provencal. Inspirations picked among others, from the Arabic poetry. It is about love poetry and poets often seem to be obsessed with love for the woman they adore. Poets and singers expressed often by singing troubadours. The Provencal poetry was not just about love but was also written to elicit laughter or to denigrate rivals. The Provencal poetry was spread throughout Europe. What we call now for Romantic poetry was born thus in the tests in the Middle Ages.

In the Middle Ages tried the Catholic Church, along with landlords to govern ordinary human life. For cultural life was the church's role great. It was in the monastery library that the ancient scriptures were written and stored. The church used the Roman language, Latin, which became the future international language. The medieval peasants who wanted to study could choose the ecclesiastical court. It was in klostrarna that the teaching was done. Eventually also formed University. The women could not count so much training. The school was because future priests and it was a profession just for men. Everywhere in Europe in the Middle Ages klostrar sat monks and created until the fine manuscripts using a quill. Sana books took years to be produced and were worth a fortune. The most popular stories in the Middle Ages heard legends which was about men and women who suffered and often died for their Christian faith. The medieval European literature consisted also of theological works, manuals, texts for worship and sermons. They also wrote historical chronicles. It was translated a variety of Greek and Roman works from Arabic into Latin. Many of the monks has devoted his entire life to translating books. The church drama and part of the legends were later translated into the vernacular so that even those who were not Latin savvy could read books.

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