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Galileo and Jupiter

Galileo Galilei was born February 15, 1564 in Pisa in Tuscany. His father was a musician and his parents wanted Galileo would follow in his footsteps and become a musician he was with. But the family's finances changed during his childhood time and his parents decided that Galileo would go for something more profitable. That's how he got into the medical path then it was pretty good money.
But Galileo's heart was not in medicine and in his study he found that there was more mathematics and mechanics, which encouraged hock mind.
On 7 December 1592 Galileo had his first opening lecture as professor of mathematics and he began 18 years at the University of Pandu, whom he describes as the happiest years of his life.
His duties at the University of Pandu was mainly to teach Euclid geometry and standard astronomy to medical students who had knowledge of astronomy for the application of astrology in their medical bedömningar.I May 1609 Galileo had a letter from his close friend, Paolo Sarpi, in which he told of a Dutch man who had invented an instrument which could magnify objects and view them at closer quarters than they really were. This was the first telescope ever invented.
But Galileo, with his ingenuity and mathematical knowledge, took this information and started building his own telescope. The first telescope he had made a magnification capacity of about 4 times. That he was not happy with, but he began studying and experimenting with how he could improve it even more. He learned to grind and polish lenses and in August 1609 he had built a telescope that had a magnification capacity of eight times. He quickly realized that this could be a good thing to have and that there was a market value of the telescope.

At the end of 1609 Galileo had turned his telescope to the sky and began to make remarkable discoveries. Galileo wrote down his findings in a book called the Starry Messenger, and this book caused quite a stir. Galileo claimed to have seen mountains on the moon, the Milky Way was made of lots of tiny stars and that there were small objects circling Jupiter.

In 1610 Galileo had turned his telescope towards Saturn and he was very confused about what he saw. He did not realize that the telescope was not good enough to see Saturn's rings different, but he believed that Saturn was composed of three separate objects.
That same year he made a massive discovery. He realized that Venus showed the same phases as the moon did, and therefore must mean that it is circulating around the sun and not Earth as previously thought. This was also a bit puzzling to Galileo when the theory of the Copernicanska The idea was put to the test against the theory proposed by Tycho Brahe. The Copernicanska theory was that everything revolves around the sun, while Tycho Brahe's theory was that everything except the earth and the moon orbits the sun, which in turn orbits the Earth.

In January 1610 Galileo observed a planet (Jupiter) and saw what he thought were three stars in a straight line through the planet. He observed this planet and the "stars" every night during the next several years and realized that these "stars" never left the Jupiter page. He also found that these "stars" changing position both in relation to itself but also in relation to Jupiter. Galileo also realized quickly that there were three "stars" as he previously thought - it was 4st. He came too quickly that this was not the question of the stars that he saw - it was planertariska objects - Jupiter had four moons circulating around it.
In mid-March, gave Galileo his book called Sidereus Nuncius, which he described what he come up with and this made Galileo famous worldwide.

But his theories attacked by free and caused much concern and controversy around the world. This was contrary completely against what the Catholic Church was teaching and this was as good as saying that Copernicus was right in his theory - the Earth revolves around the sun and moon, in turn, spins around the earth. But it also put another theory out of balance. But the thought that there was only one center of motion and the earth was. Now it was necessary to realize that this was not the case but that the earth was not the only planet with a moon - Jupiter was 4st and they spun around Jupiter. This in turn resulted in more and more support to the theory of Copernicus.
Jupiter and its moons
Io and Europe
Ganymede and Callisto
Galileo continued to do research and he discovered sunspots on the sun during the summer months in 1612. He studied the sun at about the same time every day and he found that the spots on the sun moved. To illustrate this, compiled 36pcs of these drawings in a flip-book so that you can scroll at different speeds and see how the spots are moving day after day.
These drawings show the Galileo observations between the dates June 2, 1613 - July 8th, 1613th
Galileo wrote a book called Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, 1632. This book caused chaos and insurgency, and Galileo was called to trial in 1633 where he had to swear that it was not true what he concluded. The Catholic Church wanted and thought the earth was the universe centers and this was what they taught with. Galileo's theories were contrary completely against this and Galileo got life sentences. But because of his age and his poor health, he received a lifetime house arrest.
But this did not prevent him from carrying out more research and write down what he concluded. But he did not tell anyone. Instead, he drew everything and wrote a new book that came out in 1638 and was called Call and mathematical demonstrations concerning two new sciences.

After Galileo's death January 8, 1642 was named Jupiter's moons on the Medicianska stars that Galileo originally called them, the Galilean moons in honor of his memory and his discovery.
After Galileo's death, many spun upon his theories - not least Isaac Newton. And even in our times now done the research around Jupiter and what Galileo arrived at in his time.
The difference is that today there are more advanced instruments to use than the primitive telescope Galileo had in his time.

For example, 1977 was sent on Voyager 1 and 2 into space to show pictures and gather information on different planets. Jupiter was one of the planets they visited. The images and information sent back from the Voyager spacecraft was fabulous. They showed, among other images of Jupiter's incredible cloud systems, including the Great Red Spot, which is a huge storm that constantly rotates around like a massive hurricane.
the Great Red Spot
We also got pictures back on Jupiter's four moons, and we clearly saw that the moon Io had small volcanoes that constantly had small outbreaks. Until now no one had ever seen a volcanic eruption somewhere else than on Earth.

18 October 1989 lifted the spacecraft Atlantis - called Galileo Galilei, from the Kennedy Space Center for over six years studying Jupiter and its moons, to send back information and pictures to Earth.
Galileo to launch to Jupiter
In December 1995 the spacecraft Galileo to Jupiter

Galileo arrived at Jupiter

And as it was hoped that poured into information and pictures of Jupiter and its moons. Among the information that came back was found, inter alia, proof that there are shallow salt water in Europe, Ganymede and Callisto, while the one found on Io volcanic activity. Galileo was also the first spacecraft that flew past an asteroid and discovered a moon of an asteroid. This was completely new to the research team.
Galileo was launched into space and during the 2 years that Galileo circulated Jupiter did it with the entire 36 laps.

Sunday, September 21, 2003 ended Galileo's 14-year adventure with the deliberate destruction of the spacecraft at Jupiter. Galileo was placed deliberately in a collision course with Jupiter because the propeller on board the Galileo was almost gone and they wanted to avoid a collision with Jupiter's moon Europa, as Galileo discovered that there are shallow salt water on the moon. This in itself raises the question of the possibility that life exists in Europe. At NASA says that there are plans to, in future, send up more spacecraft to explore whether this is possible on such a frosty moon.

Before Galileo, even got a glimpse of Jupiter made the amazing discovery. In October 1991, Galileo passed through an asteroid belt and sent pictures back to Earth on the asteroid Gaspra. This was the first ever close-up of an asteroid.


Less than a year later, the craft managed to send even a close up of an asteroid, this time Ida. But this asteroid was not like any other. This had its own little moon "Dactyl". This was the first time you've seen a moon, or even known that asteroids can have moons too.

Ida and Dactyl

Later, in 1994, filmed the first direct collision between a comet and a planet. It was the comet Shoemaker - Levy 9 which collided with Jupiter.

Comet Shoemaker-Levy9 fragments

Galileo made many other fascinating discoveries. Among other things discovered ammonia clouds in other planetary atmospheres. Huge thunderstorms were also observed and it was fascinating that they were much, much stronger than those found on earth. Among other things, discovered that lightning, for example, was up to 1000 times more powerful than it is on Earth.

Lightning on Jupiter

It was also the first spacecraft that went into another planet's magnetic sphere long enough to identify its global structure and to explore Jupiter's magnetic field.
Galileo showed that Jupiter's ring system really consists of dust virrats up of interplanetary meteors that crash into Jupiter's small inner moons. The information sent back showed that Jupiter's outer ring actually consists of two rings, which go into each other.

The craft also revealed details and photos of Jupiter's four moons, Ganymede, Callisto, Europa and Io. Measurements such as Galileo did at the moon Io showed that the volcanic activity is up to 100 times greater than that found on Earth.

volcanic activity on Io

There was also a very interesting thing with Io. They found evidence that Io's interior is made of iron. It has a core of iron, which is about 560 mil in radius. And another interesting thing is that there was a large hole in Jupiter's magnetic field, very close to Io, and this gives the scientists now wonder if it could be that Io has its very own magnetic field. But the researchers emphasize that it may also simply be that gravity from Jupiter can be so strong that it affects Io in this way because it is so close. They compare this phenomenon with that we have tides on Earth caused by the earth and the moon's gravity.
On the moon of Europe believed that there may be a vast ocean of salt water, at a depth of about 100km depth beneath the frozen surface and it contains about twice as much water as there is on earth.
But in 1999 they made a fascinating discovery in Europe. It was found that parts of Europe was covered with nothing less than battery acid - a highly corrosive and combustible substance. This was believed to first rule out the theory that there would be any life on Europe in this corrosive environment. Me scholars reject this approach and suggests that as battery acid is a fuel is so energy can be extracted from this and energy is essential for life. And that they found battery acid but also deeper layers of water, which is vital for life, so scientists believe that there is hope of life in Europe.

The measurements also showed that there may be salt water on both Ganymede and Callisto with.

But the biggest discovery was that around the moon Ganymede, there is a magnetic field. No other moon of a planet has such a field.


But as I said was that crashed was purposefully destroyed by Galileo at Jupiter in 2003 after many successful years with the information ratio, data and images of Jupiter and has plans to send up more craft in the future, according to NASA.
End for Galileo
Furthermore, the discovery of new satellites of Jupiter in 2003. It was early in February 2003 by Scott S. Shepphard and David C. Jewitt from the Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii along with Jan Kleyn from Cambridge university who first saw these satellites.
This takes the total number of known satellites of Jupiter to the 63st. These satellites were discovered using the latest technology in the most advanced telescopes.

Elaine Patterson

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