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Genetic engineering

Subject: Biology, Research
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In genetic engineering maps husband was in the chromosomes of the various genes are located and to reveals genes appearance down to the smallest detalj.Dessa knowledge opens up opportunities for us to change and replace genes and placing genes in other organisms so that they can work for oss.Studierna of human genes gives us a better chance to understand and prevent hereditary diseases. A person with diseased genes can have a chance to avoid falling ill. There are also risks of genetic engineering. Many fear that genetic engineering will be used to sort out people with bad genetic conditions. Gentek-nology is not just something that affects our medical facilities, it also affects most of our humanity and our society as a whole.

Hybrid DNA technology

Recombinant DNA technology is the foundation of the entire genetic engineering. It allows one to freely move genes between an individual, race or species to another. This recipient may have completely new properties. Organisms that received foreign genetic information are called transgenic organisms. In the beginning they used only this technique in lower life forms such as bacteria and yeasts, but recently it has also started to apply it to higher organisms incl. plants and animals, and even people which you use in gene therapy which was later treated in this ascribed.

When applying the recombinant DNA technology makes use of a variety of technical equipment. One of the most important is the so-called restriction enzymes that act as a kind of biological scissors. That was when researchers found these enzymes as conditions for hybrid DNA technology was created because, with the help of these can be "cut" out portions of genes. Today we know of more than 900 restriction enzymes. The restriction enzymes different from each other by the "cut" at various bonds in the DNA chain. Because this can be done by selecting the right enzyme to cut at exactly the place you want

First, DNA is taken out from the donor and split into desirable pieces using restriction enzymes. These parts are then transferred to the recipient. From these parts before the transfer can isolate the objective gene by the electrophoresis which is a physico-chemical method for separating biological particles. When transferring the DNA from the donor to the receiver is facilitated if the first connecting piece of DNA with a vector. A vector is a DNA molecule that has a natural ability to move between the various organisms.

A vector is often used is the so-called plasmids. A plasmid DNA is a ring that is of the bacteria and contains the information for its own copy genes and often for its properties such as antibiotic resistance. When applying the recombinant DNA technology to cut the plasmid using a specific restriction enzyme and then the joints are filled with DNA from the donor cut with the same enzyme. For DNA fragments should sit up steadily, one adds yet another enzyme, ligase. This enzyme has the ability to seal the DNA molecules.

When all this is done it has received the hybrid DNA molecules, ie, molecules that contain DNA segments that artificially joined together.

Another type of vector to use the genetic material from the virus. Viruses are simple organisms that contain only a small amount of genome. Joints to the donor DNA into the viral genome go there with a fellow passenger in the cell that the virus infects. In this way, you get an efficient transfer of donor DNA into the recipient

Before recombinant DNA molecule is transferred to the recipient, they are treated so that they can give up DNA. To be sure that the recipient received the hybrid DNA uses vectors carrying a light detectable characteristics such as resistance to antibiotics or chemotherapy. When a bacterium receiving the hybrid DNA may therefore another genetic information and other characteristics. Recombinant DNA molecules multiply inside bacteria and under good circumstances can form hundreds of copies because bacteria reproduce asexually can in this way to mass produce hybrid DNA.

Practical use recombinant DNA technology is used for many purposes. The most important use is to mass produce identical DNA molecules which man uses in research and production of drugs, vaccines and other proteins of interest in the pharmaceutical industry. Mass Produced DNA used in research to study gene structure at the molecular level of various organisms and to study the functions of the different genes. Another important application of recombinant DNA technology in the pharmaceutical industry which transmits human genes to bacteria and thus cause them to produce human proteins that can be used for medicine. An example is the growth hormone. Growth hormone is produced in the pituitary gland. In people with dwarfism lacking the ability to produce growth hormone itself, or it is enough self-produced not. These people can be cured if they are in childhood treated with growth hormone, but this method has been limited because it is difficult to get hold of the hormone with the old method to extract the hormone from the pituitary of deceased people because you can only extract very little. By adding the genetic information for the human growth hormone in bacteria has gained bacteria that produce growth hormone. The growth hormone is identical to the human being successfully used to treat people with dwarfism because of hormone deficiency. Another example is insulin. Insulin is needed by about 60 million people in the world today to regulate the sugar content in the blood. Previously, they used pig pancreas to produce insulin. Pig insulin is similar to human existence, only one of the 51 amino acids separates them, but it is enough to provoke allergic reactions in some people. It was therefore a great success for diabetics when you learned to manufacture human insulin using recombinant DNA technology. At the moment there are not so many drugs on the market are produced by recombinant DNA technology, but the rapid development taking place right now, and in the 2000s there should launch a large number genetics produced pharmaceuticals. The benefits of these drugs is that they come from a never-ending source of raw materials, they have the same composition as the body's own counterparts of medicine and infection is not likely to comply with the drug. The last advantage is otherwise a feared complication when using biological particles produced in the traditional way, ie, from live or dead animals and humans. Another area where the hybrid DNA technology is very useful is in the manufacture of vaccines. In the production of vaccines using recombinant DNA technology to transfer the gene of the infectious agent giving rise to protective antibodies to a receiver (usually a bacterial, yeast or mammalian cell). From the receiver can then extract vaccine containing only the part that gives rise to immunity. The process is described clearly in the picture two. In this way, has already received a vaccine against the disease Hepatitis B is a liver disease and it is hoped that in the future will produce vaccines against many diseases with the help of this technology, especially parasitic diseases that cause great suffering in the tropics. The benefits of these vaccines is that they come from a never-ending source of raw materials and that they are harmless because they are produced in cells that contain only a small portion of the agent. Production Costs are comparatively quite low. Recombinant DNA technology also engaged in plant germplasm. The technology has gained much importance in plant breeding. Plant breeding seeks to develop new and better qualities of our crops. The old methods have in common that they have low accuracy and are very time consuming. To develop a new variety can take up to 15 years. With the help of recombinant DNA technology has completely new dimensions opened up by one to transfer properties of various plants almost any way you like with the bacteria. When transferring genes to plants uses the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens to insert the desired gene and then allowed to infect the plant and spread their hybrid DNA. The process is described clearly in the picture three. Using this technique it has been presented many good properties in plants. Eg it has received plants to become resistant to insect pests by getting them to produce a protein that insects do not tolerate. It has also received plants to become immune to the herbicide, and it has also led them to become more nutritionally complex example has been developed potatoes with a higher starch content which allows it attracts less fat during frying. Another important thing one has been able to influence the pace they decompose in the example has been developed tomatoes that can stay fresh much longer than normal. One may also transfer genes to animal cells and thereby produce a genetically altered animals (transgenic animals). Using a very thin glass capillary to inject a very small amount of DNA of a fertilized egg. With luck, it remains in the egg and connected there with the egg's chromosomes. The egg is then transferred into a uterus and develop there into a transgenic animal. Transgenic mice are relatively easy to produce and are used in research among others by giving them a gene that causes them to develop a special kind of tumor which gives scientists a chance to study tumor formation and thus develop better treatments. One possibility for the future is to produce animals that secrete drugs in the milk or blood. This has already been achieved by, for example, have been given genes encoding the human hemoglobin to pigs. The pigs have begun to produce both pig and human hemoglobin. With the help of special technology has been able to distinguish the two topics from one another. In this way, scientists hope to eventually be able to solve hospitals' lack of blood. Another example is the transgenic may be given human gene for the production of a protein to use for the treatment of hemophilia. It has also achieved the gene to work in the mammary glands so that the protein is secreted in the milk.

Production of DNA artificially It has long been chemically linking individual nucleotides to obtain short DNA chains. The problem with the earlier methods was that you could only create very short DNA chains and that each step in the manufacturing process was very time consuming. More recently, it has developed an automated technique that makes it possible to separate hours making chains that are up to 200 nucleotides long. With the help of "klisterenzymen" league`s chains can then be joined together into longer chains. With this technology have been built throughout the genes. Using PCR method can reproduce DNA in the test tube. The method that you can see illustrated in Figure four is to one mimics the cell's natural DNA copying in a test tube. Assuming a single DNA molecule. When heated to about 900 C, breaking the hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous bases. In this way, the two strands are separated from each other. Then lower the temperature and adding the enzyme polymerase and raw materials to DNA. Of these ingredients produces the enzyme new DNA with the original strands as templates. This is repeated again and again. Every time one heats and cools the sample to double amount of DNA. This method has had great significance for research which produces DNA from single cells in such quantity that the structure and function can be better studied. The method has taken over large parts of the production of the DNA of the bacteria. Another major application of the method is the right medicine which using very small sample size, eg mouthwash, blood stains etc. can identify individuals.

Gene therapy Gene therapy is a variant of recombinant DNA technology which can transfer genes to organisms in hopes of repairing damaged genes. In the beginning the only technology on the inferior organisms, but recently it has developed the technology so that work on the highly advanced beings incl. man are possible. The procedure can be compared to an organ transplant in which to transplant a gene instead of a body. Yet the technology is relatively poorly developed and there have been so many try to use the technique on humans. The difficulty lies in transferring genes into the body effectively and to control how many copies of a gene to transfer and where in the genome they seem. It is also difficult to get the gene to operate in the right tissue at the right time. When transferring genes to animals and humans uses genetic material from the virus. So far it has focused mainly on repairing the gene defects in bone marrow cells. This is the easiest area because here you can take out the cells, insert the new gene in bone marrow cells and then put them in the spinal cord again. For the procedure to have any effect, it is important to transplant genes for so-called stem cells ie cells that constantly forms new bone marrow cells. Another difficult thing is that the affected gene can not be removed and sometimes it can disrupt the cell even after the healthy gene to complete. The use of gene therapy to cure genetic diseases will probably be limited to technical difficulties a long time to come. However, one could imagine that in the near future will be able to construct the cells to be able to produce "drug" in the body such as insulin for diabetics. There is a distinction between the operations performed on body cells (somatic cells), and the intervention exerted on fertilized eggs or embryos. The difference is that intervention in somatic cells only affects the individual, while engaged in germ cells is inherited. Gene transfer to a fertilized egg cell is as I have said already practiced successfully on mice and technology should be practiced on humans, but this will probably never happen because it's not really ethical reasons, and that no one really knows what the effects would be give.

Ethics of genetic engineering When recombinant DNA technology was introduced in the 70s it started a debate on how fit or unfit this sort of technology is. Man has affected the plant and animal characteristics for thousands of years through breeding work. The only skill-market (from my view) is that it now goes terribly much faster. When the technology came many feared that it would have serious effects, eg feared that transgenic bacteria would spread and cause serious diseases like cancer. In the beginning was therefore genetic engineering experiments performed only in specific risk laboratories and using special weakened the recipient. Such concerns were for a long period of hybrid DNA technology using proven to be untrue and the harsh rules have been relaxed. Genetic engineering creates today enormous debates about eg how big the changes researchers will be able to do on living creatures. You should be able to patent their "creations"? You should be able to use genetic engineering to sort out people in several respects. Many fear that in the future will have to give a DNA sample at arbetsan- searches and in this manner, employers are able to screen out those at risk of getting cancer, etc. during their active working life. Prenatal diagnosis with gene probe is another hot issue. Should parents be allowed to choose the child if it does not have the genetic conditions that parents want? These and more questions will be discussed long and probably will never find solutions that suit us all. Personally I think that genetic engineering is something fantastic that gives us incredible opportunities for the future. Especially in countries with hunger issues, it provides an opportunity to combat this with the help of genetically modified plants and animals. At the same time, I think because of my Christian faith that one should be careful not to go over the limits, and playing God.

References Internet: http://www.fil.lu.se/NKB/www-pat/1gh.html http://www.service.com/Paw/morgue/cover/1996_Jan.COVER03.html http: // www .library.usyd.edu.au / MJA / issues / sep16 / rail / rail. HTML

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