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NATIVE AMERICANS

Topic: Culture, Society
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The Indians, along with the Inuit and Aleutians (two other races)
the backbone of America (North and South) indigenous. Identification Indians
they have received since Columbus would prove the earth was round and sailed out over
Atlantic. The first country he came in contact with was Cuba. Columbus believed the
they come to India. They then came to the wrong place but they thought
still they come to India as planned. Columbus therefore called
the indigenous people of the Indians. This is also why islands of Cuba called for
Caribbean.
It is believed that the Indians' ancestors wandered into America by the year 10000 BC
over the Bering land bridge between Alaska in America and Siberia in Russia.
Then they walked increasingly down to warmer climes. These ancestors were from
initially only hunters but learned everything after the years of using grain
and then developed the small civilizations based on agriculture, the cultivated
Thus their food.
Because after a while been away from Russia and the old world for a long time
since so "they found the" increasingly peculiar cultures and traditions themselves. When
The Europeans took over Indian nations so was their cultures down and this
considered one of history's greatest tragedier.Mesoamerikas Indians
The Mayans, Aztecs and Incas that I have chosen to write about living
in Mesoamerica, northern Central America (Mayan and Aztec) and West
South America, Andean (Inca). Therefore, I do not so much about
North America and southern South American Indians.
Central America's climate is tropical, the landscape is mixed with lowlands in south
the Atlantic Ocean and the highlands in the west by the Pacific Ocean. In the lowlands, it is very
rainfall, while mountain areas are semi-arid. Which through so it was great
shifting between the different tribes knowledge in agriculture and handicrafts.
Therefore tied the major trade contacts between different cultures ochindianstammar.
Already at about 1200 BC so they started to build densely populated
urban areas with great knowledge of astronomy, mathematics, art, politics and
calendar system. It had also started developing a kind of writing. In the towns
the huge architecture.
Many of meso, Central America and Mexico Indian tribes still lives in
Today the course with less sprawl. But many of them have still
retained their old religions and languages.
India amount decreased, although there are a few million left in the day sharply
in 1519 when a Spaniard named Cortés, who also mentioned later in the text,
began Europeans' takeover of America. Although Columbus came shortly
before the 1500s did not start the conquest of even when Cortés arrived.
Indian nations sank from having been about 25 million to about 1
one million years 1600. The main cause of death was not that they were murdered by the
Spaniards but by sjukdomsepedemier they brought with them from Europe. Male
also introduced a new kind of housing policy and the Indians had to move and forced
work for the Spaniards. The Indians had to adapt completely after the Spaniards
wanted, wear the same clothes as them, the same burdens as the Spaniards had
with them and make use of the Spaniards cattle, cows, bulls and horses
which they never did before. Indians had to accept this, but in recent years
Indians have started their own organizations to preserve the right to their own
social relationship and their faith, and above all their human rights.
South American Indians
Remains of southern Argentina shows that the Indians have been in South America already
at about the year 9000 BC Other remains suggests that there existed Indians where
previously. The Indian immigration to South America crossed the Isthmus of Panama
that before the year 7000 BC consisted of savannah. Then they went south after
West Coast mountain but you also believe that a part broke down after the East Coast and
settled in the Amazon rain forest. There started the Agricultural
immediately and cultivated corn, etc., while the Andean Indians did not begin to grow on
Even at about 3000 BC Andean Indians began to cultivate mainly maize,
potato but also other types of crops. The cattle they made use of the two
llamas, typical llama and alpaca.
After 2000 BC it developed a large variety of high cultures in the mountains;
including the Inca, but they were not his real greatness period of even a good bit
until the 1000's AD
Nowadays there are about 500 ethnic groups remain of the original lowland
tribes, between 100 000 and 200 000 people in each of the 11
Countries are communities scattered in the most inaccessible places in
South American jungle.
All Indian tribe in March indigenous cultures are on the verge of missing. Mainly in
lowlands where they are threatened by deforestation, abuse and colonization. Nor
the reserves set out in some countries provide adequate protection of their culture.
Andean (highland) Indians are threatened primarily by economic and political reasons.

Mayans

Around the year 0 in the current Guatemala lived the so-called Mayan Indians. The
was originally just an ordinary forest people but spread since everywhere
larger areas. The Mayans never came to form something really rich, but
consisted of several small towns. These cities were built of large temples, the so
called Maya temples which I will return to later in the text. In these large
Temples lived who ruled in the city, it could be, for example, priests or
another highly placed nobles. The leaders ruled the peasants who lived in small
huts out on the maize field. It has been in the Mayan villages also found the ball game plans where
it probably was to throw any kind of ball through a basket on the side of
plan, about today's basketball only to the baskets sitting on the diagonal.
Maya actual heyday between the 300 and 900s AD They were
very good at mathematical calculations, we know that they used the phrase
zero and in astronomy was Maya priests clearly dominant over other cultures.
They had figured out the calendar year, more precisely a European astronomers and
Mayan astronomical observations is unbelievable because the only
tools they used were the eyes. They used a kind of hieroglyphs when they
wrote, it was a very advanced style that proved very difficult to interpret.
How-led culture
The people were ruled by priests in the various cities and a special priest king ruled
of the priests, he had said that the greatest power and the people obeyed him
and his astronomical calculations. In Mayan culture was common
human sacrifices, often bloody ones. After what we've seen in murals
and got out of hieroglyphics so stung first victims' fingers bloody before the victims
killed by prästkungen.Mayakulturens temple
Mayan temples were magnificent, they were built as the pyramids of Egypt
with clipped peaks. Which was built on top of smaller buildings, sometimes
sculptures and a kind of memorial stones round about. They built various temples
at different locations usually fixed with the same base of the pyramid. For example, the
Temples of Tikal unusually high and steep pyramids around him, the entire temple is 71
meters high and 59 meters wide. In Palenque, the actual temples at the top that is
very large and in Copán there are ruins with huge temple pillars around.
In a temple discovered large murals in the temple all three rooms. Now is
all temple pyramids almost completely overgrown by bushes and other jungle plants
but researchers are trying to clearing away a little about some of the temples.
Technically speaking so low Mayans for other Indian tribes; one felt
neither to the plow, the wheel, or even to use animal traction.
Around the year 900 it happened something strange, which remains an enigma.
Mayans moved north up the Yucatán peninsula, leaving his large
Temple towns left behind. There was formed the so-called "new empire" with
Chichen-Itza as the center. But it was probably not quite as you had imagined
for when they had moved so they got it tougher, both politically and in
religion. The whole thing was hardly better by another Indian tribe, Toltecs,
started a war with the Mayans in the 1000's. While these
both peoples fought and weakened the Mayan culture so shut the priests themselves
with his science. When the Spanish arrived in 1540, it was Maya's already so
dissolved so that the Spaniards easy, after more than 1500 years could take over and destroy
throughout their culture.
Today there are approximately 1.3 million Mayan-speaking people left in Central America.

THE INCA EMPIRE

The Inca Empire was the largest trial to the statehood of South American Indians.
It was founded around the 1200s when a number of small Indian tribes settled
together into one large. They built up their capital, Cuzco, named after
Reich first Inka, Cusco. The capital was built as a square. It was
divided into four districts, each representing one of the four districts
Empire was divided into; if you came for a visit to the city, you had to only be staying in
the part of the city that represented the part of the country where they came from. Inside
the city was also a great fortress in which the Inca (the Inca leader)
lived. Around the city were large walls built. The residential buildings were often built by
clay or stone, the roofs consisted of ichu grass and was very similar to today's
thatched roof.
From Cusco to the Inca Empire extended over the following centuries by
defeating other Indian kingdoms along the Andes; the great mountain range in South America
Western parts. The largest Indian kingdom to defeat the Chimú Empire, which
corresponds to the current Peru. After the conquest began Inca take a part of
its characteristic features such as roads, state planning and the major downtown
the governance of society.
Inca society was controlled so that it sat a solitary ruler at the top, the so-called
Inca. Under him, he had a few during the conductor, each ruled a
each one of the big four main parts as the kingdom was divided into. For them, it was
a whole host of officials who were under their rulers at ever lower and lower
levels. In this way the "top brass" quickly spread their orders over the Empire.
By a kind of triangular pattern.
Inca each regarded by the people as the sun's son and husband worshiped him
their god. It was in itself quite obvious because the main
religion during the Inca period was sun worship.
Inca wife (queen) during the 1400 and 1500s his own sister but
He also had "additional wives" were selected. They lived as tempeltjänarinnor and
made beautiful mantles of alpackens wool Inca.
The communication in the country was completely dependent out of the road network had been built
in and around the mountains. They sent messages to other parts of the kingdom with
special messenger, Chasquis, which brought messages through special
knot strings, called quipus. Inca population had no real
written language so that they could make themselves understood with the help of writings without the
could only make the knots of different length and color of the laces. This allowed
the recipient could then understand the message's meaning if it is, for example,
related taxes or military information, but above all the diversity of the
things. The language they used was Quechua.
It was very skilled craftsmen in Inca empire that not least all
the wood and gold jewelery worn in the ears to show their status. The forged
not only in gold but also in, for example silver, copper and bronze. Their clothes
were usually woven by various lame animal wool. It was also very proficient with
ceramics, their work was very durable and painted with different colors, red, white
and black patterns shifted.
The taxes was abolished consisted mainly grown out of things such as corn,
sweet potatoes, tomatoes, and more. They were grown on terraced hillsides with
a special fotplog and hacking. You could grow about 40 different crops. One
third of the cultivated raw materials went to the Inca, one third went to
the priests, and the remaining products went to support his own family. One
Another law was that it would work in the mines and on the roads of the state.
1533 fell Incas to Spaniards. It was a conquistador (name of
early Spanish conquerors) by the name of Pizarro with the help of 200 men managed
capture and killing of the former Inca Atahualpa. But the Spaniards went
no special adjustments proceed when they took Atahualpa for they promised him that if he
managed to fix up a room full of gold and two more, filled with silver so
they would release him. But the Spaniards were obviously not what they promised and
killed Atahualpa. When the Inca leader died so raged throughout society
together overall. There were legends that said that the Incas were Eldorado, "land of gold"
and when the Spaniards took place so they seized a variety of different
gold objects, thus come true the legend.
It was the end of the great empire that lasted about 300 years. It covered the
most current Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia's highest areas as well as Argentina and
Chile's northernmost parts. It has been estimated that the Incas consisted of about 10
million inhabitants when they peaked.
How do you know so much about the Incas and their empire depends on all the writings
written on them between 1500 and 1600's. There are two main Spanish
writer but also a Native American who put together a 1,400-page manuscript only
with pictures. In this way, it has also got hold of the Incas perspective on the whole.

Aztecs

During the 1300s settled one from the north immigrant Indian people on some islands
in Lake Texcoco, where they founded their capital Tenochtitlan meaning
cactus cliff city. On top of the ruined city is now Mexico City.
There they built up their empire militarily oriented, and it was
powerful people throughout Mexico. Other Indian tribes had to leave gifts to
Aztecs. They were originally a migratory peoples who had a small
knowledge of agriculture but in 1325 they beat themselves, as I said down in Mexico
founded his capital. It was the Aztec's largest city and the art of building
was enormous, they built aqueducts and floating gardens. The capital
population was also in between 150,000 and 200,000 inhabitants.
Aztec imperial began to develop in the leader Itzcóatl, during his chores
so they took over the neighboring city Atzcapotzalco and during the remaining years until
Spaniards foray 1519-1521 took during other leaders of increasingly
surfaces throughout Mexico. At about 1500, so they had an area of ​​about
200,000 km2 then could the kingdom begin to expand outward toward more avlägsnatrakter.
Aztec society was governed much like almost every other Native American people with a
sole leader at the top, Tlatoanin he was civil, military and religious
tasks in society. His closest advisers were Cihuacóatl (snake woman).
Others who were highly placed in the social "scale" was people
worked as a contemporary company administrators, they were like a kind uppvisare
or negotiator of the Indian tribe outward, Teteuctin. Then there was the upper class
children, Pipiltin certain benefits. Some who had a particular impact in the leader's advice
were prominent warrior, Quauhpilli. A variety Priests held in ceremonies
and astronomical studies. They also made predictions. Those who did
Aztec long-distance trade was Pochteca, a kind of merchants who were also
spies for the military organization. Frequently free people, Macehualtin paid
tax and had to give away different gifts. On the upper class fields worked there
serf Mayeques or Tlalmaitl. The slaves, Tiacotin stood at the bottom of
Aztec social scale.
The Aztecs believed that it took the legacy that even parents did, even if the parent
For example, the special strip on gold or mats so would itself engage in
it. Upper-class young people could go to either a priest school or warrior school.
Religion supported militarism and a soldier could show their courage by taking
a person to catch. The captured sacrificed late to the gods.
Since the Aztecs often took for other Indian tribe in March gods and their faith
there were within their religion a variety of gods. All these gods had
various functions and appeared in many different guises. They had just
like other cultures, a god of war, a regngud, a sun god and a fruktsamhetsgud,
In addition there was also a variety of other gods.
This Indian tribe had, as I mentioned earlier, very much
in common with other tribes. So even with CE. It had two
calendar year, a casual by 365 days, 18 months of 20 days each
month plus five other days and holy by 260 days. After 52 years so
coincided the two calendar years in a special way, which was celebrated with special
ceremonies.
If one were Aztek and every ill so had to go to some of the village's astrologers
or soothsayers, they laid the sick forecast. When someone was sick so went they
much after what is causing the disease, if the gods had reason to
be angry at someone, got him a treat with great emphasis on magic
while a wound or something where the gods were not involved so got it a regular
medical treatment. Because the treatment was to drive out all evil
spirits from the plague so means you got against diseases often such
Species that vomited violently or received tremendous sweating.
It often took to surgical procedures on patients. The wounds each carefully cleaned
and to put various herbs to the wound would heal. On top of them, the man
feathers and leather.
Aztec "doctors" were all focused on a particular kind of disease or
affliction, such as was the astrologers and diviners who asked the patient
diagnosis, medicine man used the healing herbs and another
specializing in bone fractures. There were particular intestinal specialists who gave
enemas and bathers who gave massages, hot baths and medical
"Sweat cures". It was in Mexico, large supplies of wet as could be
prepare the medicine of. One of the last rulers of Montezuma 2 (1502-1520)
had an entire garden with medicine plants that accounted for people's disposal. Male
grown herbs for abortion, against diarrhea, hudsjukdoms ointments, drugs, etc.
The Aztecs were a very art interested people. They have found lots of
paintings. Most are symbolic and shows the relationship between their gods and
humans. They were also used as political advertising. The god man painted by
most was the corn goddess, it shows that the maize had a big role at the time.
It was of course not only the gods who were avmålade but it has also been found
sculptures of animals, from jaguars and serpents to the locusts and other insects.
The most grandiose construction works was built between 1450 and 1521. Foremost
they were built in the capital, Tenochtitlan. Typical of the peoples of Mesoamerica
(Latin America) was that they often built mountain shrines, a kind of chapel or
Church near the caves and rock formations.
Each new ruler of the Aztecs built the new buildings they wanted to,
look different compared to the other buildings. Toltec (another, previously
Native American) art inspired Aztecs much, especially the so-called
chacmoolskulpturerna depicting gods laying down a sacrificial bowl
next to them. It was also from the Toltecs as the Aztecs got its name
painting profession, toltecatl. It was also inspired by other tribes painting and
hantverksstiler. It sounded Indians from other tribes come to Aztekriket and
work for them. A testament to the high status was gold that has almost always been a
status symbol. But other things are hardly worth anything also gave
status such as feather and stone handicrafts. That you have found a large quantity
burnt clay figures indicate their proficiency in ceramics. Aztec
ceramic works were considered to be simple and upper classes were content only with
imported pottery.
The Aztecs were skilled in poetry which was appreciated very. One of the leaders,
Nezahualcoyotl (1418-1472) was himself an accomplished poet. They had the most
other Latin American Indian tribes have taken up an impressive writing and
counting. They spoke their own language, Nahua When the Spaniards came to
the Capital where they stunned the Centre's major temples, ritual
ball game plans and how far they have come in their development.
The Spaniards who made their debut in the 1520s easily defeated the Aztecs,
partly because the Aztecs then leader was a sedentary religious
brooders, and partly because all strains Aztecs held during the helped
Spaniards in the fight against them. Montezuma (the sedentary brooder) gave
up easily and allowed himself to be taken prisoner by the Spaniards leaders, Cortés. Cortés
success led to the thought that he was the white god, Quetzalcoatl
(the feathered serpent). He was a tall, bearded white man would come
from the ocean to the east, ie the Atlantic.
The Aztecs cultivated mainly corn and cocoa. That's the Aztec language given
us the word chocolate.
Now live about 2 million Aztec remains in Mexico, many of them speak
original language Nahua.

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One Response to "Indians"

  1. Herik on November 12, 2009 at 2:48 pm #

    thank you for making this site it realy help our schoolwork

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