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COFFEE

Topic: Food
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1 Introduction

One of the earliest stories, which dates back to as early as 120 years
before Muhammad, tells us:

"The Great Goat, Bert was a day out in the woods and herded their shepherd
Kaldi then he suddenly began to chew on a small red berries he happened
find high up in a tree. Before he knew it, he began and
His getkompisar, who also tasted the berries, jumping around
uncontrolled and frisky.

Kaldi was immediately suspicious of this unprovoked happiness and
ran immediately to his abbot to reveal what they mean
goats found on. The abbot, who was also an old goat, ran out of
the dark Ethiopian urkaffeskogen and picked some of the mysterious
the berries. After persistent prayers, God spoke to him and said, "You shall
beat boiling water on the berries and then drink it. " Abbot, who
usually fell asleep at the most inappropriate times,
discovered happily that now he could be awake for several minutes at a stretch.
The rumor of the miracle berries spread quickly through space and
the monastery was soon named "The wake monastery". "

The fame of the coffee's characteristics quickly spread, but it took as long as
500 years before that abusing drink seriously. An Arab sheikh
discovered the coffee year 1450 and got so excited that he immediately blessed
it and gave it to his subjects so that they could pray even at night.
He also took the opportunity to prohibit the coffee was transferred out of the country. But
reverse gear, he was! The coffee still came to Europe (contraband) In the middle of
1600s opened the first coffee house in Venice. Coffee houses were a
phenomenon that spread quickly. In 1660 there were two thousand coffeehouses - and
only in byhålan London! The first time the coffee came to Sweden in 1685
when someone took out a half-kilo of coffee by the Gothenburg Customs (input
research suggests that coffee was of the type Gevalia medium roast).
Here in our beloved Fatherland used beverage primarily for medicine, but
Donald XII, who was on holiday in Turkey, taught the Swedes how to
drink the noble crap in any other capacity than as drugs.

The drink became so popular that liquor manufacturers felt so threatened
operations that, on several occasions, pushed through
Coffee prohibition, but after violent popular protests was lifted last
prohibition 1,822th
To get a cup of coffee is far from being as simple as most people seem to be
confident. Unlike what many people believe, do not grow coffee in
small jars on the shelves in the supermarket, no, the whole is far more complicated
than that.

A quick look in a dictionary reveals: "Coffee (Coffea), a genus of
måraväxter with 50 small trees and shrubs, most of them in tropical
Africa ... "

2. Biotechnological description.

When the coffee plant grows happily in the Ethiopian urkaffeskogarna the
the form of a 5-10 meters high tree with small bunches of white sweet
flowers and red berries. The berries are small as cherries, but unlike
those containing coffee cherries two cores, so-called coffee beans. They are everything
usually green and mature after 6-8 months.

When the plant is grown, it has the shape of a bush when pruned to a height
of 2-4 meters to the berries easier to be harvested and to
avenge the plant grows rather something clean violently explosive in width.
Coffee bushes are feeble wretch who often suffer from various diseases,
especially leaf rust diseases (The coffee bean is roasted, however nothing
signs of disease). It is precisely for this reason, and the fact that
the plants are quite discerning with their surroundings,
Coffee is not grown on either Greenland or South Pole.

There are three species of the coffee grown in a larger extent than the
Others. These three are: Coffea Arabica: The original species
originates from Ethiopia. Three quarters of all coffee production will
from this tree. Arabica coffee has a
mild taste and is of high quality, which means a relatively high price.
Because Arabica bush rare selective way, as to its
surroundings, cultivated this kind of coffee mostly in South America.

Coffea Robusta (or C. Canephora): This tree is more resistant
against disease and bad climate and cultivated therefore in places with
unreliable climate. This coffee has a lower quality than Arabica coffee
and has a bitter and acrid
taste. To be able to drink it, you mix it with Arabica and
often used for instant coffee undrinkable. The advantage of Robusta is its
relatively high caffeine content.

Coffea Liberica: Liberica-coffee is grown in Malaysia and Guyana Local
consumption. This coffee has the same characteristics as Robusta. Approximately 1% of
world production of coffee is just this kind.

3. Kaffiphramstællning

Despite today's advanced technological progress, takes most of the coffee harvest
by hand. Skin, pulp and other debris is removed by one of the two
methods available and the beans are dried. They are then sold on to
roasters for further treatment. On roasteries heated beans to
100-150 degrees for 10-12 minutes, the longer the darker. When roasting
formed and released the aromatic substances that give coffee its
characteristic flavor and aroma. After the beans are roasted, they are ground. How
finely it is ground depends on which way you choose, and then cook it.

Called instant coffee powder produced by boiling the coffee and then,
by freeze-drying it, removing water (and taste).

In Sweden, we drink often mixed coffee, a coffee can contain
Up to eight different coffees. As a base it uses so-called
Santos coffee then this is a gentle and reliable taste. In this mixed
then other varieties to give the final
blend its flavor, power and richness.

4. The theory behind the art of brewing coffee

There are today a large number of methods for the transformation of
black powder to drinkable mourn. The most common method in Sweden is
to let the hot water through a filter containing coffee powder,
ground just for this purpose. This technique
exploited by the so-called coffee brewers, which is available in most
stocked warehouse. This method requires, in addition to coffee powder and
filter, cold water, which is then heated to the ideal temperature of
96-98 C. The water must be cold
before it is heated, because the oxygen content is higher in the cold than in hot
water.
A brewing method that has gained greater attention lately is the so-called
Terrace jug originating in France. Bistro Kann Coffee requires
a coffee a little more coarsely than usual filter coffee. Another
Southern European inventions is the so-called esspressobryggaren. In such
apparatus brewed dark roast, very
ground coffee powder under high pressure. The result is a highly
spicy coffee that should be enjoyed in small amounts.
A method that does not require the same degree of advanced equipment and
Technical skill is boiling coffee. This technique is practiced, therefore,
mostly far into the Swedish primeval forests.

5 The coffee chemistry

Coffee, along with tobacco, the most complex mess you can imagine
itself. Not elsewhere will find as many different compounds
right there. The coffee has up to three thousand volatile aromatic compounds
isolated, which only
a few are identified. A total of seven thousand different compounds
isolated. Some substance groups are more important for the coffee aroma than
others. Among the most important groups include; Sulfur compounds, is
very important for the coffee's flavor and scent, despite the low
the concentrations present in the, often no more than a few micrograms
per kg of coffee. Pyrraziner, until today has over 80 compounds
containing pyrrazzinringar identified in coffee. Pyrrazin has a
variety of flavors, depending on the compound, it is all about, but often
reminds the aroma of fried meat or various vegetables, like corn,
potatoes or peas.

Pyrridiner, there are some 15 substances identified pyrridinringar
in coffee. The scent reminds mostly of caramel or nuts, but some
compounds have a strong spoiled odor. Pyrroles, very unclear what flavor
they actually have, but all agree that they have a big debt to
the coffee aroma. Oxazoles, some 30 identified in coffee, has a sweet,
nutty and green aroma. How green smell, you should ask an expert.
Furans, there are any number of coffee, its aroma is about how to
time. Most furans are green, roasted, nutty or vegetable similar
odor. The dark roast coffee, it is primarily FA gives
coffee its special bitter and burnt taste.

Aldehydes, are mainly found in freshly roasted coffee, but because of its
volatility disappear soon. The aldehydes which despite everything remains in
coffee has a light, fruity aroma.

Ketones, usually sweet, fruity or slightly burnt aroma. Available
lots of coffee.
Phenols, in low concentrations, which increases with the degree of roast.
Their aroma is smoky, burnt and bitter. The highest concentration is in
Robusta coffee.
In addition, there is a glorious bunch of other fine substances in the coffee. Subjects
with special physiological effects we can mention 9th

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