The problem in Kosovo stems from the large ethnic tensions between Serbs and Albanians in the autonomous region of Kosovo.
Kosovo had several possessions in his story called different names depending on the language, culture, etc. I have chosen to use throughout Kosovo regardless of era and I also does not stand for any of the pages.
That it is a difficult question to determine Kosovo's future is probably most agree. We see this especially now after NATO intervened militarily and Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic's ethnic cleansing in Kosovo.
The purpose of this uppstats is primarily trying to up clearly show and point out the most important epochs in Kosovo's checkered past, thus creating a certain understanding that today there is a military conflict in the area. I will always try to be as objective as possible in my presentation.
The work of this paper has mostly consisted of reading the literature available in the bibliography. Then sort out the most important pieces and give a transparent description of Kosovo's history for the reader. The ultimate goal is for him to get an understanding of the contradictions that exist in the area stems from a long and tragic history.
Kosovo's structure and ethnic composition
Kosovo is an autonomous province within the Serbian republic located in the southern part.
In the north of Kosovo, surrounded by the massif of Mokra Gora, in the south of Kopaonik and on the east by sar planina.
The area has an area of 10887 km2 bordering even to Albania.
The latest figures on the population of Kosovo, which can be interpreted as something reliable was developed in 1982 and showed that the Kosovo Albanians constitute about 77 percent and serberna13 percent. The rest of the population consists of the Montenegrins, Turks, Muslims from Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro and Gypsies. Today, Kosovo is dominated by a predominantly Albanian population (about 90 percent), however, is largely in exile since the armed conflict between the KLA and Serbian forces began.
According to the daily newspaper Politika, unemployment was 54.5 percent throughout 1988 Population growth in the area that is one of the highest in Europe, is another problem. Especially since it is only the Albanian population increases, whereas the Serbian part decreases.
Kosovo is also one of the least economically developed areas and feed primarily on agriculture. Another fact that is a problem in Kosovo is the religious composition. Albanians who converted to Islam during the 1700s set against the Serbs who are Orthodox Christians.
Kosovo's history from the Serbian perspective
The Serbian historians claim that seberna would have arrived in the Balkans sometime in the 600's.
They would then have found a deserted, fertile plain with good natural resources in Kosovo area.
This area became the heart of the Serb settlement in the Balkans.
The first five centuries consisted of infighting between the various Serb clans. The area's affiliation switched during the period between lying under Bysan and Greater Bulgaria.
During the 1100s a more solid state formation Serb formed. This state came to be developed and strengthened in the 1200s, to the 1300s become the great medieval Serbian kingdom under the leadership of Stefan Dusan. The Serbs freed themselves also during this era of the church in Constantinople and raised archdiocese in 1346 to the rank of Pec Patriarchate. Stefan Dusans next step was to break even after subdue Constantinople, but he died during the preparation and Serbia's heyday was over.
Greater Serbia was not only a political power in the Middle Ages but also a significant economic state. Kosovo invited on rich deposits of gold, silver, copper and tin, which began extracted during this time, with the help of German miners. Most of the wealth was invested in large, outstanding churches and monasteries that were placed in Kosovo, "Serbia's Heart"
So it is in Kosovo as the Serbian cultural treasure is preserved in the form of churches and monasteries.
Storserbiens case came at a bad time, now namely the Turks had begun to advance in the Balkans. Serbs, Bulgarians and Albanians united and fought against the Turks, but was finally beaten by the mythical battle of Kosovo Polje wise 28juni 1389th
Serbs territory was now slowly during the Turkish rule and many Serbs opted to leave the area. Those who nevertheless remained came to be under the Turks, who certainly exercised a certain repression, but where conditions were not quite otolerabla.
But during the 1600s, the Ottoman Empire began to be threatened, and the repression and corruption increased. The Turks ordered massevakueringar of Serbs to Hungary that is today's Vojvodina, who since then became the Serb stronghold of culture, at least until the mid-1800s.
The Serbian historiography argues that Albanians are newcomers in Kosovo. They must have penetrated the country during the 1600s and 1700s. Albanians who converted to Islam favored by the Turks. According Serbs will be Albanians been behind the terror that provoked the great exodus in 1690, when the entire 30,000 Serbian families left Kosovo for Hungary. Similarly considered Albanians lie behind the great exodus 1736-39.
From this time Albanians have been seen as the enemy and ally in the war that followed the Albanians have always been on the opponent's side ie the Turks, Austrians, Italians and German.
Kosovo history from the perspective of Albania
Albanians' view of history based on that they descended from the Illyrians, which Serbs deny.
Illyrians would have based its state at some time between 850 and 350 BC
and then had Shkodra as its capital.
Shkodra, which is only 10 mil from Kosovo.
The Albanian historians believe it would have been extremely odd if you do not also populated Kosovo, which was by far the richest area.
The Albanians would according to historians descended from the Illyrian group dardanerna, who populated Vardardalen, Kosovo and the city of Nis hinterland. In the late 1600s began the Albanians with the agriculture rather than to live as nomads. It was also at this time that the mass conversion to Islam began.
Kosovo is sacred to Serbs are already written, but Kosovo is also very important for the Albanians, then the national awakening took place there after 500år of Turkish domination. The most important event for the Albanians were called Prizrenförbundet, which was formed in the town of Prizren in southern Kosovo. This was the first time that we came together across religious and clan divided borders to discuss their future. The man sought was that the Albanian-populated districts of Kosovo, Shkoder, Monastir and Janina would get semi-autonomous status within the Ottoman Empire, but with Albanian who recognized administrative language. The union also sent a memorandum to the Congress of Berlin which, however, was rejected because, according to the Congress not exist any Albanian nation. During the late 1800s fought several rebellions against the Turks, led by Prizrenförbundet. But the Turks managed to maintain control and more than 3,000 supporters of the union were deported to Asia and the union was banned.
1899 gathered 850 delegates from Kosovo to create Pecförbundet as a successor to the dissolved and banned Prizrenförbundet. Unrest in Kosovo proceeded and after several minor revolts broke in 1909 a more extensive Albanian revolt against the Turks out. The revolt was put down after five months of fighting. It would take until 1912 before the next rebellion was brewing, it quickly spread across Kosovo, northern Albania and western Macedonia and 23 August the Turks went on to acknowledge Albanians autonomy. Albanians' joy was short-lived, however, the same year, they agreed four independent Balkan states Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria and Greece that once and for all throw the Turks out of Europe.
This was successful alliance with and in 1913 signed the London Agreement, which among other things gave Kosovo to Serbia.
It is estimated that about 13,000 Albanians were killed in Kosovo during the sebiska takeover.
Albanians' answer came in the "third Balkan war" that began with the revolt of Debar. Serbia managed to suppress the revolt. The Albanians in Kosovo and Albania, however, got his revenge during the First World War when the Serbian army was forced to retreat through Kosovo and Albania to the Greek island of Corfu, just off the coast of Albania.
When World War I ended, they went back again to the 1913 borders, that is, according to the London Agreement.
The Serbs refused to follow the minority rights of the League of Nations before wrote, referring to the fact that Kosovo belonged to Serbia before the war.
Kosovo came to be controlled by the iron fist of the Serbian army and police.
Serbia immediately began the colonization of Kosovo, around 100,000 Serbs and Montenegrins moved in and was awarded confiscated land. They wanted to break the Albanian dominance, serbifiera area, but also promote the area's economic development. Several Albanian revolts broke out and it would take until 1924 before the area was pacified.
During the interwar period were divided into Kosovo in three management areas to divide the Albanian population. They began to treat the Albanians as second-class citizens, banned the Albanian language, closed schools and forced the Albanians to leave their names in the Cyrillic alphabet. All to create the Serbian state as possible. When this still did not seem to hit fully throughout concluded a contract with Turkey on a deportation of 40,000 Albanian families. This was done, however, never when Yugoslavia could not obtain the money Turkey demanded as compensation for receiving the Albanians.
Storalbaniens formation and cases
The Italians occupied the 1941 Kosovo and the Albanian-populated part of Macedonia after two years previously entered Albania.
These elements were combined and Greater Albania was founded.
Most Albanians in Kosovo välkommnade this and saw it as a relief from Yugoslavia.
Now came the Albanians to gain national rights they lacked in the interwar period. Albanian was alongside Italian language official language, the Albanian flag was allowed and the Albanians had the right to keep and bear arms.
Serbs in the Kosovo situation was now changing. The colonists from Serbia and Montenegro, was thrown out of Kosovo, their house Brades down but also several Serbs were murdered. 1943 organized the so-called "Kosovo Regiment" and in 1944 the Albanian SS Division "Skenderbeg" these two came to commit brutal massacres of Serbs and Montenegrins. Even an Albanian organization named Balle kombetar formed and their main goal was to ensure that Greater Albania would remain even after the war. Then, when Italy surrendered in 1943 were anti-Communist Albanians to form the "second Prizrenförbundet" to thus promote Kosovo Albanian affiliation. 1945 could be linked not resist Tito's partisans longer and forced it to surrender.
Yugoslav secret service control in Kosovo
After World War II came the Albanians' situation to change for at least three ways.
Kosovo became a separate part of the Serbian republic and gained autonomous status 3 September 1945 Alba's wife also came to be recognized as an official language alongside Serbian.
The Albanians were also back land previously confiscated by the Serbs.
The colonists were compensated in turn with land outside Kosovo.
The rights Albanians won, however, came to stay at the paper, except for the returned land. Instead of Kosovo came to be controlled with an iron fist by the Yugoslav secret service UDBa until 1966 when the business began to be examined and the Vice President and Interior Minister Aleksandar Rankovic deposed. The Serbs were suspicious and aggressive attitude towards Kosovo Albanians due to the Albanian dealings with facisterna during WWII. After Rankovic cases and UDBas debilitating began Kosovars see an improvement, with new forces began to demand full rebublikstatus for Kosovo.
Kosovo Albanians' situation improved
In November 1968 a powerful demon star bonds to break out in Kosovo towns.
Requirement they had was increased national rights.
Demo Star Terna was backed up also in Macedonia, where they wanted to the Albanian-populated parts would unite with Kosovo.
The demonstrations came to bring the majority of Positive improvements for the Kosovars.
The Albanian flag is allowed to be used at the national feast day, which is important for a people who build up their sense of nationality. It was also to create a university in Kosovo's capital Pristina, which unfortunately has become segregated where Albanians are educated in Albanian, which makes it unusable outside Kosovo.
New money poured in to Kosovo in the late 1960s and the 1970s, when the federal development money made available to Kosovo. However, the money was charged on capital intensive extraktionsindustri and not labor-intensive light industries as needed to reduce unemployment. This led ultimately to the economic gap between the developed regions of Yugoslavia and the less developed, particularly Kosovo.
It was also during this period that the Yugoslav Federation konfederaliserades. The autonomous areas took more power, each area wanted to manage their finances and usurped so much federal development grants as possible. Now began the Albanian national sentiment built upside degenerate. Now began to require bilingualism of all officials within the administration area. It introduced the so-called "national key" which meant that the Albanians who constituted 80 percent of the population in Kosovo also would hold 80 percent of the jobs. This was used to divide the Serbian villages, it simply built a factory in a Serbian village and then moved a lot of Albanians there because 80 percent of the labor force would be composed of Albanians. They also abused the federal assistance to buy Serbian agriculture. This also for splitting Serb areas.
Spring 1980 died party leader Tito who came to be succeeded by a council of nine members, the so-called Presidential Council, as well as a party leader collective consisting of 23 members.
Kosovo came again suffer a uprising.
On 26 March 1981 an Albanian student threw his tray in the floor of the Pristina University's dining room.
He shouted out his wrath on the poor social conditions in Kosovo.
Students gathered and pulled out on the streets of Pristina, the rebellion was a fact.
The revolt quickly spread throughout Kosovo and western Macedonia. The requirement was that Kosovo would get republic status. Management in Belgrade put quickly into the Yugoslav People's Army and declared a state of emergency. According to Albanian sources, more than 2,000 young people have been killed and a Scandinavian diplomat says he has seen 140 young people killed when tanks moved into the demonstration trail.
The requirement we had was then that Kosovo would have the status of a republic, and not just the status of autonomous region as it was now. The Serbs did not accept this because they were afraid to republic status would only be the first step in a three-stage rocket. The second step would be to Republic of Kosovo would require that the elements in Macedonia and Montenegro, which was albansbebodda would be connected to Kosovo. The third step was believed that Kosovo would withdraw from the Yugoslav federation and instead join the People's Republic of Albania.
After the rebellion was put down man accused throughout 5200 Kosovo Albanians for political crimes. They also cleaned up at the Kosovo Communist Party, which resulted in the 1800 party members lost their membership. More than 200 lecturers at Pristina University were sacked and student number was cut down to 20 000 pupils.
Harsh climate after revolt
After 1981 years of orolighter was a vacuum between the ethnic groups in Kosovo.
The communication was virtually non-existent.
The Serb exodus from Kosovo came to increase significantly, the Serbs began to feel threatened by the hostile surroundings.
Another reason why many felt compelled to leave Kosovo was the requirement of bilingualism and Albanians continued to buy up land.
In the 1980s, grew up Serb nationalism stronger. Serbs raged over the "national key" which gave every state the same number of seats in Parliament, as in the CPS either. Why would Serbia with more than eight million residents have as many seats as such Montenegro, with its 0.5 million? The Serbs also felt a strong disgust for Serbia dismembered during WWII. And not only that, the two autonomous regions created, Vojvodina in the north and Kosovo in the south. Another reason in terms of the Serbian nationalism that sees it as his duty to protect the Serbs outside Serbia, ie in Bosnia, Croatia, Vojvodina and especially in Kosovo.
The Federal President of the Council now decided that it would ban the sale of land across ethnic lines, and finally came to banning all Albanian migration to unified Serbian and Montenegrin villages, all to reduce the Serb exodus.
Serbian academicians, writers and other cultural figures turned to the federal parliament there but presented allegations of genocide against non-Albanians in Kosovo. First March of the same year a delegation arrived from Kosovo to Belgrade. Deligationen claimed it was committed sexual assaults against Serbian women in Kosovo and that the local police turned a blind eye to this. The group's leader, Kosta Bulatovic, was jailed on return to Kosovo. This contributed to eight thousand Serbs and monetnegriner demonstrated against the arrest. A third march to Belgrade was conducted in late 1986. It proclaimed that unless the authorities could not guarantee the safety of the Serbs in Kosovo would they defend themselves.
Slobodan Milosevic's rise to power
The media in Serbia began to watch and interest greatly Kosovo after particularly Bulatovic protests. This meant that the Serbian press received great criticism at a centralkommittemöte 1987, claiming that the press fueled the Serbian nationalism. The criticism led rather to nationalism became even stronger, and a power struggle between the Serbian komunistpartiets leader Ivan Stambolic and Slobodan Milosevic broke out. Milosevic used skillfully the nationalist movements that existed in the country in their quest to become the leader of Yugoslavia. He also came to exit the power struggle as victor.
Serb konstituionen change
A constitutional change was the big political issue in Serbia and Kosovo in late 1988, it was the Serbian Constitution should be amended so that the Republic of Serbia increased its control of Kosovo over internal security, defense, schools, judiciary and financial planning.
Another major change was that the Republic of Serbia's constitution could be altered without the autonomous områdernas consent.
In December 1988, it was clear that the President of Kosovo Kaqusha Jashari and party leader Asem Vllasi would be overthrown. Huge Albanian protests erupted then in Pristina and other towns. One guesses that 300,000 to 500,000 Albanians took part in these demonstrations disciplined. On 23 March, the Kosovo Parliament to vote on the constitutional change, where a large majority voted for change and adoption. Afterwards, there were rumors that the police would have threatened the parliamentarians and their families before omröstningen.Vilket also openly written about in the Slovenian and Croatian press.
Violent clashes were taking place between protesters and police on the streets of Kosovo after the vote on the constitutional change. This time the troubles not only limited to Pristina, but also spread to Urosevac, Titova, Mitrovica, Pec, Djakovica, Prizren, yes, soon all over Kosovo. Destruction and violence this time was much worse than the spring of 1981, and a state of emergency with a curfew was announced.
After a relatively quiet fall, all hell broke loose again in 1990, large Albanian demonstrations took place from the 23rd of January to 4 th February. The requirement this time was national and human rights, free elections and a free press. The Yugoslav Presidential Council decided to put the people's army in Kosovo to assist the Federal militia. It was now the fifth time since World War II that the army was deployed in Kosovo. That you again chose to send army units to Kosovo was due to events beyond the borders of Kosovo. In late January Demons cash namely hundreds of thousands of Serbs and monenegriner in Serbia and Montenegro. Their claim was that they would clamp down on albenerna in Kosovo, would be set up "voluntary brigades" to defend the Serbs in Kosovo.
Ibrahim Rugova was elected president on May 24th in 1992 with 99.5% of votes.
He came to hold several important positions in Kosovo, as president of the LDK (Democratic League of Kosovo, Lihje Demokratike e Kosovës), Chairman of the Coordinating Committee for Kosovo parties and a couple more.
But tried in June 1992 for the first and only time to collect parliament elected but this was stopped by the Serbian police.
In the spring of 1996 in time for the election.
Then went Rugova in and extended the term of office of one year.
Then, with another six months.
This is believed due to strong pressure from the United States.
According KIC's (Kosovo Information Center) reports that daily reaches the West has done well since LDK "Kosovo came under Serbian occupation" except that the Serbs continued their assault against the Albanians and that no dialogue has begun. The same reports you get when you read Rilindija, now published in Switzerland, or Bujku now more is a daily newspaper in Kosovo. KIC and these newspapers are dominated, however, by LDK. Following the other hand, the independent press, such as Koha or the new daily newspaper Koha Ditore, then the matter in a different mode. LDK and its authority here scathing criticism. However, Rugova and the government got the parallel society and school system to operate fairly. The president, government and LDK have however not been able to get off any dialogue with the Serbian authorities and politicians exception former Prime Minister Milan panics two short visits to Kosovo in autumn 1993 and the attempt to call between LDK and Slobodan Milosevic's support party New Democracy in autumn 1995.
The only agreement but managed to draw is that the Albanian school premises would again be allowed to stay open, the contract was concluded between Rugova and Milosevic in 1996, but so far, the agreement has not been put into practice. After the Dayton Agreement signed in November 1995, became increasingly vehement criticism against LDK and Rugova. The criticism directed it contained among other accusations of misinformation, inactivity, power monopoly and abuse of power, appeasement and a wrong foreign policy.
In February 1996 there was a bomb attack against a time of Serbian refugees from
Kradjina, murder and attempted murder of Serbian police and Albanian renegade. It then completely unknown organization, the Kosovo Liberation Army (Ushtrimi Climitar e Kosovës, KLA) took a clear responsibility for the attacks. KLA is now starting with serious threats to the "Serb occupation forces" but also against LDK. While a strong radicalization of Kosovo's youth is sweeping across the area. More and more people believe that armed struggle is the only way to better levnadsföhållanden to Rugova and his non-violent policies have failed. Many Kosovo Albanians have also so bad socially that they have nothing to lose by dying in the fight for freedom. It is also said that large sums of money to weapons from Kosovo Albanians in exile.
Adem Demaci that due to his 28 years in Serbian prisons known as "Kosovo's Mandela" threw himself into politics in the late autumn of 1996, after working in Kosovo's human rights organization. He was elected shortly after the turn to the leader of PPK (Parliamentary Party) who is Kosovo's second largest party. He has maintained a high political profile and has directed strong criticism mother Rugova and the LDK, but also against other new ideas that cooperation between the opposition in Belgrade and Kosovo in some kind of new federation of the Balkans. Demaci and PPK represented a much more activist than Rugova and the LDK, calling among other things for civil disobedience, argue that schools must be withdrawn and the need to organize protests and demonstrations.
Concluding remarks and conclusions
What has happened in Kosovo in 1998 and 1999, I do not go into more detail on.
That there was an armed conflict in the area would know most Europeans till.Det for me is now much more understandable how this tragedy could happen.
The hatred that exists between the various ethnic groups are so far back in time and has brought so many carnage that I doubt if it ever goes to one of the groups.
A quote from Branko Horvat's book Kosovo issue gives a very good summary of the Kosovo problem "If you have two ethnic groups, which differ in terms of both language and culture and to this additionally add different religions, you can not avoid some communication problems and some animosity. If one adds to this a bloody past of constant fighting, which lives in the consciousness of men, then the situation becomes critical to say the least. If we add to this the large differences in education and economic development, then it only remains to wait for the explosion. "
Another conclusion I arrived at after studying the history of Kosovo is to Serbia, after all, has not acted entirely wrong in the conflict against the KLA and NATO. Of course, ethnic cleansing in no way be justified, but Serbs have been falsely accused in the media to be brutal killers and have had to take on all the blame for the conflict when Kosovo Albanians have at least as much debt. Thus Western powers media has slanted the entire conflict to Kosovo Albanians' advantage. Although the Serbian President Milosevic large debt on the issue of ethnic cleansing of Kosovo, but not the people of Serbia. Thus one must be very careful not to believe what the media writes during armed conflicts.
Finally, I would like to quote Orjan Sturesjö which is Balkan expert, he wrote a personal note in his book Kosovo a Yugoslav dilemma: "The more I visit Kosovo, the more I realize how little I understood. Should we study the problem of Kosovo is one to do it through literature, ie, read books and take part in simple theories, to be confronted with reality is just confusing "