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History of medicine

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History of medicine
The first been caught knowledge of various diseases written around 400 f.Kr in Greece. Greek culture laid the foundations for a theory of diseases origin and cause. Father of medicine, Hippocrates (460-377 f.Kr) ideas about medical ethics and confidentiality applies today. The first scientific studies and the results came in the 1500's. Vesalius a Belgians (1514-1564) wrote more books of anatomy after having dissected a number of bodies. During the 1600's was the practice of medicine under the influence of religion, astrology and witchcraft. Until the late 1800s was used drugs came from nature after it was produced new drugs by chemists and biologists. In my opinion, religion has had a major impact on the practice of medicine and still has great influence in certain religion than today. The research has developed many medicines that help against various diseases and human / animal in pain. Drugs have helped many people on the whole but at the same time as the drug also made many people addicted to drugs.

Symptom imbalance in the body thus signs of disease
Diagnosis What is the disease, through to find out the different symptoms can find out what kind of disease / diagnosis
Auscultation - When listening to the heart with a stethoscope
Palpation - Examining the hands of different body parts, control swelling, tenderness, temperature.
Percussion - Explore by placing your hand above the various agencies and tap on the hand with fingers and listen to how it sounds.
Inspection - Using the lamp and spatula examine the mouth, throat and teeth.
Sampling - Made by various special investigations like blood tests, urine tests, saliva tests, imaging tests etc.
Sampling is done to:
- Detecting and diagnosing various diseases
- Follow the progress of the disease
- Check the state of health, disease prevention
Cultivation - You take samples from such wounds, urine, etc. and cultivates bacteria
Resistance testing - Shows the different susceptibility of bacteria to various antibiotics
Serological surveys - They are made to faställa if a patient infected with a viral illness
Scintigrati - Is when one adds isotopes by mouth or intravenously to x-ray the various organs.
CT - Computed tomography - Using the computer to make detailed pictures of various organs
PET - Position Camera - Similar to scintigrati taken up by various organs and imaged using special equipment.
MRI - Magnetic Resonance Imaging -With the help of magnets and radio waves to create images of even narrow fabrics. It's very good to examine the brain, heart, muscles, large blood vessels etc.
Ultrasound - Sound waves bounce off different tissues and are absorbed by the device that uses electronics makes them the image of the computer screen.
Endoscopic examinations - Is a long böjigt instruments with a strong light source doctor into any of the body opening to see inside a body or / and flush the body with air or liquid, or connect a camera and take pictures of organs.
PAD pathological anatomical diagnosis You take tissue samples, biopsy at a gynecological examinations.
Biopsy - Is when taking a tissue sample that you want to examine microscopically, the tissue structure and content.
Quality of life
A good quality of life is that you feel good, that you are healthy have a good health, is rested have good sleep, good relations with friends and family, enjoy my job my colleagues mm. A good health I get by taking care of my body, by thinking about what I eat, drink, exercise, have good mental balance, not smoking or drinking alcohol etc. That way I can prevent demonstrate disease, avoid premature aging and not hurt my body. When one is children and young accidents are the greatest health risk, when you get over 50years, cancer, cardiovascular disease largest hälsor risk and when you are over 70 years stroke, and various forms of dementia largest health risk. So how I live my daily life affect my health in the future. You have to take it easy and not stress so much stop and look around you to give you time to smell the countryside see colors around you. Life is short, try to enjoy the good see the good in the world, laugh, smile feel good. When you're a small child's parent and not getting as much sleep thanks to the positive there are small children small concerns big kids big worry it will pass it will not be forever enjoy the good that they come back and say I love you they really mean it.

Cell, tissues, organs and organ systems

I have been pregnant four times and gone through four births, every pregnancy at each enrollment so have a midwife asked if there are any illnesses in the family. Fortunately, we are healthy except that there are asthma and some allergies in the family, we have no hereditary diseases in the family. As for prenatal diagnosis so I think we'll find out what kind of risks of the study and if you really want to find out the truth about the baby carrying any disease. In the survey, many hereditary diseases mapped and might be prevented.
The great thing about DNA is that it tells the truth. Many men are deceived to them is the father of a child that they are not. With a simple DNA test can they find out the truth. The negative is that the truth can hurt sometimes, unfortunately.
Hereditary disease
I would find out that I'm carrying a hereditary disease, I would be confused to begin. Then I would find out everything I can about the disease and what it will do with me and my body how it will affect me. Then I would find out if there is a risk that my children can get it and if it is possible to prevent my children do not get it. After that I would do all keep trying to live as normal a life as you can and give my family so much love as possible.
Genetic research
With the help of genetic research has developed many different drugs. Hopefully, you can maybe in the future to develop drugs with the help of genetic research that can prevent diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and more.


- Lump in the chest or at any other site in the body
- Wounds that do not heal
- Abnormal bleeding from any body opening
- Cough or hoarseness that does not give itself
- Difficulty in swallowing
- Change of stool habits or problems with urination
- New or changed birthmark
- Fatigue, weight loss and fever for longer period

Various studies being done to see what kind of cancer it is, studies that doctors are doing is
- Physical examinations, feel for lumps, see skin and throat, pallor and emaciation
- Radiographic examination
- Ultrasound
- Laboratory tests by taking samples of blood, urine, feces, mucus see if there is some cancers
- Endoscopies - with instruments investigate any body opening and inspecting possible tumor
- Cytological examination - take samples from cells and see if the cancer has spread

Surgical treatment
That is surgically removed all the cancer cells and surrounding tissues. In some cases, remove nearby lymph nodes to reduce the risk of cancer spread.

Chemotherapy Treatments
Kill the cancerous tumor with chemotherapy stop so it does not spread. Side effects of chemotherapy is that it affects them healthy cells are also in the bone marrow, hair roots and digestive. - Intestinal tract. The patient loses hair, becomes nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, becomes pale, tired, feel orklös. The number of white blood cells decreases so does the patient to become extra sensitive to infections. When you get chemotherapy should avoid pregnancy because it may harm the fetus. Usually decreases sexuellusten during treatment in some cases you become sterile as well. The lining of the urinary tract and genital area can become extra sensitive and harvest so that one can easily get ulcers and bleeding.
Radiation therapy
Radiotherapy is given to cure or arrest cancer tumor. It can also be used to relieve symptoms then it is not possible to cure cancer disease. Radiotherapy is usually given five days a week for 4-7 consecutive weeks.
Side effects of radiation treatments are
Them healthy tissues damaged but heals usually when you stopped reading. Scar formation in tissues can occur long after radiation treatment ended. It also affected the hair roots, mucous membranes, throat, gastrointestinal events, bone marrow, where blood cells are formed. Other side effects include fatigue, itching and redness of the skin radiotherapy, sexuellust subsides.

Hormones and hormone antagonists
Some tumors are dependent on hormones to grow. By adding anti-hormones or operate a portion or the entire organ that produces hormones prevented the growth of the tumor. This mainly cancers that depend on hormones, e.g., breast cancer, prostate cancer, uterine cancer.

Cytokines are a substance that stimulates the immune system. It protects the body against infections and it has some effect against certain cancers such as leukemia.

Palliative care
Palliative care (symptomatic) gives you then you can not cure (curative = curative) anymore. It provides palliative care when
- The diagnosis is correctly set
- If the correct diagnosis is not long can cure or improve the diagnosis
- Death is to be expected in a short time
When the staff will provide palliative care, it means that the staff will provide good nursing physically, mentally, socially and spiritually. It gives it through pain management, supportive, conversation and proximity.

Living life until you die

Ingalill is 47 years old, lives in an apartment and get help from Stockholm nursing home. Ingalill has been married but is skyld now she has two grown children a son who is 23 and a daughter who is 26 years old, she has worked at the insurance office and bank.
Ingalill live in an apartment, the apartment she lives in is not really suited for her, for them last treatments, she has difficulty with certain things like washing dishes, cooking, getting in and out of the tub mm. But she gets help from Stockholm nursing home. Ingalill got breast cancer first that spread in the other breast and late dorsal muscle, she has undergone surgery five times. Ingalill knows she has what she has and that's just to make the most of it. It's tough treatments there is no rolligt but if you have something good to look forward to so do, it is easier to go through it. Ingalill have MISTAKE find out that she has cancer of the cerebellum, pelvis and four vertebrae. So now she is worried and scared she does not want to lose oneself and not knowing who she is but she tries to make the best of the situation by spending time and traveling with children alive as best she could mm.

Anna - Stina is 68 and lives on the Shoulder farm in Umeå.
Anna-Stina has been married but her husband died, she has three children. She has been home wife until the children were 16-17 years ago, she has worked at the post office 32years. Anna-Stina discovered the cancer through that she felt a knot in his chest. Anna-Stina has been very ill she has received harsh treatments now she's bedridden but has a great desire to come back even if she knows it's not going to happen. Anna-Stina thrive on Shoulder farm she gets all the help she needs and she's enjoying the water as she hears in the background even if she can not see it. But she also knows that anyone who enters the Shoulder farm never comes out she has heard that expression, and she thinks that it is correct.

Anna-Stina and Ingalill have chosen two different ways to die but perhaps made them that to them was different depending on the care or maybe because they simply were two different people. I do not know but what I do know is that we must respect whatever a patient chooses to live somewhere and give them the care and support they need. They have not chosen to be / become ill without them became so respected should be.

What is Cancer? Why do you get it?
One can say that cancer is cell changes in the body that are abnormal, so to get it is not safe it may depend on how you live but it can also be hereditary. But if you eat right, exercise, is healthy, take care of their body and not have it in the family why get it? No, you can not really answer that, but it's unfair, you might think. I do not know how I would have reacted if I had found out that I have cancer. I'd probably have had panicked at first, I'd probably just sat down and wept many thought had gone into my head. Okay first had tried and heal, heal and try to become healthy again, but one can ever say to a cancer patient that he / she is healthy? Or is there a risk that it will come back? It is not sounded, I had been there what had happened to my child? How can one explain to them mom has cancer. What is cancer had them asking? Yes there are cells that do not work as they should. Yeah, but what happens then? The more one becomes sick man is not feeling well the body is not working as it should. Can I get well? Yes it can, but it can come back it can spread and yes you can die out there. Just in a situation like this, you need a lot of support from staff and family but if family members have the energy to support the sick person who will give them support one must not forget that they also suffer. That it is not easy for a family member either so both relative and patient needs a lot of support. So you have noticed that, for example have a lump in the breast becomes anxious and sad but takes the phone and make an appointment for examination. On investigation takes them blood samples feeling after every bump sit and do a CT scan. And it turns out that there are tumor so it has given me a diagnosis of cancer, oh well the cancer feels like a bomb has fallen down and took my body broken into a thousand pieces. Now you should have surgery to remove the lump and maybe even the entire breast part of my femininity. With surgery you should get Chemotherapy ie, chemotherapy or cell-inhibiting drugs to stop cancer cell proliferation, thus killing the cancer tumor. Then one would think huh well then maybe I can be healthy but with that you get all this reading what gives me the side effects. The not enough that one has lost his breast a part of her femininity to lose but their hair becomes nauseous get poor appetite mm. So there is one or half woman may think without hair without a breast and feel sick. I'd like to be home with my kids and my husband if I had been or had the disease for I know where is the best and biggest love that I would get. But would it feel good to see me like this without hair without a breast and seeing that I feel sick and vomit? How would they take it? My husband would probably try to be as strong as possible and give me all the support I need, but he'd probably cry when I do not see it being angry because I did not feel well and hope that I'm healthy, get well not die and leave him leave him. But my children, I do not know but it would not feel good, and whether one could explain to them they did not understand, but I had done everything in my power and tried to find the strength to certain them that I love them. But what if it comes back and it turns out that I have cancer of the brain that is not going to remove that means I will die in the near future. I will then receive palliative care that is symptomatic to get it so diagnosis must be correctly set, it is not possible to cure or improve the diagnosis and death awaits shortly. Then I can get radiation treatment because it not only cures and stops the cancer tumor without the ease my disease even if it can not save me. Palliative care will give me the respect that I can decide on my integrity and quality of life. This means that staff will give me a good nursing physically, mentally, socially and spiritually regardless of whether I choose to stay at home or in a nursing home. Palliative care also provides the right to call my relatives. For my relatives to feel that their presence and involvement is important. It's hard when stuff like that happens and you do not have the answers to everything but you should try to do the best for the person with cancer to feel good. Feel comfortable not have pain or have as little pain as possible and get some of their desires fulfilled, like traveling away somewhere to get a go meal to feel the love and that is worth a lot.
During my work with this I got a call that my last this mother who has had cancer of the uterus, breast, which she has surgery to remove cancer of the small and large brain. She is the grandmother of one of my children, we do not know how it will be with her than if she will survive and be healthy or die. My son knows nothing than he is only 8 years old and we do not want to scare him than without waiting and hoping that she will get better. When I received this call, I could not hold the tears back. We have not always agreed but she's still my child's grandmother whom he loves something enormously. She was / is the person that I could count on when it comes to my son. She loves him so much, give him as much love and affection that I am too weak to tell him that his grandmother might die. What I really hope not. Although I did and she is not a family and do not have as much contact anymore so it hurts to know that she is not feeling well. When it comes to diseases like cancer, which in some cases can not be cured, it's not just the sick who are affected but also family and acquaintances are also suffering. Hopefully some of all this research is that it will develop even more and make more people healthy.

Natasa Arrano

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