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THE MIDDLE AGES

Subject: History
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1) What major changes came in agriculture?

During the early Middle Ages they used to have the land divided into two parts. One could only be grown one year on each. Ie. grown in one part of one year and on the second part of the second year. That man later divided the land into three parts became a major advance in agriculture. The agency could use part of spring cereals, one for winter cereals and fallowed (no grain, let the animals go there and spilling feces so that the soil will be better to grow on). This increased the annual acreage and counteracted the depletion of the earth. Wheeled plow made it easier to make deeper cuts in the soil compared to the gear you used before. So did the grass tufts were turned upside down. Because of its weight was needed pulled by animals. This led to the next change, a harness that distributed the weight and was able to utilize the tractive force to the fullest. Any improvement was significant. Because you wanted to increase the production of food they began to cultivate the soil. That was why the forests of central Europe disappeared and instead became a coherent agricultural landscape. All these changes made so that the population increased.
Source: Perspectives on history A

2) What does it mean to be a serf?

It was mostly peasants were serfs. This meant that they themselves had not own land and therefore was required to work at a particular place. It did not move from this place. A serf could be doomed to the fate because your parents were serfs. The difference between serf and slaves (slaves) was that they could not be sold.
Source: susning.nu

3) How did the medieval towns?

Some of the towns grew up around a cathedral or possibly around a world ruler. These kinds of cities had mostly been left late Roman times. Some cities were built up by a great man could gather craftsmen and traders. These were designed to serve his household. At such Ford, estuaries, venues etc.. could also be formed cities. It is common for all cities was that they had to obeyed in and pay fees to a gentleman.
Source: Perspectives on history A

4) What did the scientific revolution?

Instead of still use the research and regulations as was done in ancient times, and believe in it so many began researching again. They discovered a great many truths that still to this day applies. They repented old truths and created a whole new world and you had to hope for a successful world. Some things that people realized through research and observation were eg gravity, the sun was the center of the universe (and not the earth), that the universe is larger than we had thought that the universe was created by a long process, and more.
Source: Dad and www.anst.uu.se

5) What was Tycho Brahe, Descartes, Kepler and Copernicus, what was it that made them famous?

Tycho Brahe was an astronomer with the Danish king's support feature the world's best observatory, or at least until then. Descartes was a French philosopher, mathematician, natural scientist and military. He termed the three central concepts of metaphysics in order not to be deceived without knowing what is real. Copernicus was an astronomer. He showed that if the sun would be in the middle so movements of heavenly bodies would be easier to explain. Ie. he discovered that the center of the universe was the Sun and not the Earth. Kepler was also an astronomer. If one assumed that the planets moved in ellipses instead of circles, he found that the correlation between theory and observation became even better. Discovered that the universe was much larger than had been thought.
Source: Perspectives on the history of A and www.thephilosophynet.com

The Middle Ages were not still

Demonstrating the importance of religion and the church had in people's lives.

If you lived during some of the medieval years, would you follow the Church and its will or would you follow your own heart and thoughts voice?
Every time you read about the Middle Ages or conversing about it so it seems to the outside so dark and primitive. So full of worries, doubts and death. People were full of sins that gave a lot of anxiety and despair, at the church and Christianity could offer forgiveness for most sins. But sins so that carnal lust, treachery, gluttony, greed, etc.. could not be forgiven. The church also said that if you accepted Jesus Christ as their lord who would have eternal life after death. Visions that this led to many adherents to Christianity. They gave the people hope for happiness instead of fear and despair. The church had a lot of power, they had the right to excommunicate people who did not want to follow the Church's will. They could also banish upper-class people and issue a bull, even against kings and countries. Could mean the war on other religions or crusade. One example was when we were in Scandinavia on the issue of bull from the Pope went in the crusade against the Baltic states. It is mentioned in Dick Harris's book about Nordic crusades of the Middle Ages, the book's title is "God wills it." They wanted the church's religion would be a world religion. Anyone who objected to them there could be major consequences for so that, as I said excommunication. They were able to give punishment to the people who committed sins especially if they committed one of the deadly sins. They could condemn people to a life of example monastery or that they would join their crusade and war.
When it comes to science, so the church was against research that could lead to the church's statement about the science that they supported could be contradicted. Would a scientist or scientists speak of such a thing, or a new understanding of the universe and the earth, they would usually have a choice between execution or say that you commented on is not true. The church just wanted the people to have some knowledge of theology and religion. They made sure that the written culture lived on in the church in difficult times so they then could bring it back when quieter times had started. Through the Christian network of contacts, news came at a practical level. You had to build technological achievements by building large churches but also small parish churches in the country. Through the Christian monasteries began the first school and they started giving people the chance to learn about religion, theology and scripture. "The Church provided a religious justification for the prevailing social system, God had decided that some people should pray and fight for everyone's behalf, while the vast majority had been assigned to work."

Describe the political power relations.

King was the one who stood above all else. He had the greatest power, the power to run things as he wished. If he wanted to introduce laws or dismiss laws it was his right. He decided who would do what, who was most hosts, who should pay tax or not. Did he want to start a war so no one could tell. The king could decide who would have the right to decide what and who would take care of the work for him, such as to collect taxes and to stand with his army on his side.
The church that I wrote about before, had greater power than what it has today. Then it could act as judge and make decisions over punishment. It could ban people and the king start wars or crusades against other countries and / or start a war. The church could decide on what was allowed and what was not allowed. The church could contend with kings on who would have the power, of course, wanted the church to have the most power. They could decide who would run, who would ask and which ones would work (it could also be the king of course). They were free from paying taxes. Noblemen often had a lot of money and land. They had the right to vote and usually many peasants, slaves and serfs to their service. The nobility had the right to decide over their "subjects" and collecting fees from them. If they wanted and were unhappy with a "minion" so you could only sell it if you felt like it, but they can not sell those serfs (peasants were usually serfs). The nobility could set up rules that would apply to his "subjects". They could decide who would attend to the work on his land and when they would do it. If e.g. a farmer needed to borrow his master's flour mill so was the farmer had to leave a flour sack or two as payment. The merchants stood in the same rank in the ranks of the nobility. They also were able to determine their own lives and have minions. They could manage their own affairs as they pleased. Common to the king, the church, the nobles and merchants were able to determine their own lives, but also have other that "bossa" over.
The farmers had as much right to something more than if they were to be Christians, and how they would manage their land. They came to be worth less than those who had more power and money. They had to estimate and obey a gentleman. They had no right to do anything that the other was entitled to and had very few resources to be able to have a successful future.
All this is to divide the people's right and power for their social and economic standard is absurd. The king should be the only one who has the power to everything the nobility, the merchants and the Church had the power to. The church ought to just teach about the Christian and also be able to give people information and learning about our world and other skills that may come to be of great importance. The nobles and merchants have the right to control and set over the lives of others is just completely wrong. They should be free to decide their own fate. You should not have to pay any man is bound to work for.
Source: Perspectives on the history of A, Nicklas Frising, notes, dad and myself.
Emphasize the social contradictions and attempts to describe the "little" man's situation.
We can start by saying that all those "great" people were entitled to, had not the "little" person entitled to. The small man were usually slaves, servants and / or serfs. The "big" people denied them the right to vote and the right to decide where to settle down and stay. The difference between the serfs, serfs and slaves were the serfs could not be sold by his lord while the slaves and serfs could. Was your parents 'small' people became man there too, so they never had the chance to climb in status. You would always come to be poor and never have anything to say. It was easy for the "little" people got blamed for something that even the gentleman had done. It would set off what they said because they were so small and obetydelsefulla so they might as well have been dumb. They needed the little people to get by. But it was never shown. Think for yourself what it would have been if it had just been the king, the church, the nobility and merchants. Who would make sure there was food on the table, it had not gone on there now had not been any that had produced the food, butchered it or downloaded it for them. How would they cope without their servants who always act like their DOGSBODY, their farmers, purchasers, hårborstare etc.. It was the "little" people who built up the community while the rich sat on their butts and ate the fat to show that they had a lot of money. But despite all this, they had no chance to be anything other than what they were born to, convicted or designated for. It must have been horrible to not be able to decide their own life and I am glad that it is not so today. In Sweden at least. The "little" people could not like the rich give something to the church to be forgiven because they did not take anything during this time. The only thing they took was their thoughts.

Summary "The Middle Ages did not stand still"

The Middle Ages did not stand still. It was concluded new truths and knowledge in science, people began to get more knowledge and talents because of the monasteries. In agriculture, it was great success and we learned new skills on how best to extract as much as possible of their land. Because of the increased population. One got continuous agricultural landscape. One got new buildings and big churches, towns began to form more and more. The right of the "little" people began to move toward a brighter future.
All in all, it's quite clear that the Middle Ages did not stand still. Much of what they came up with then we can still use and appreciate today.

Line Holmgren

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