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Organic Chemistry, base facts

Subject: Chemistry
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Organic chemistry: If the chemical compounds that contain carbon atoms.
Inorganic Chemistry: Other chemistry, this also includes carbon and simple carbon compounds such as carbon dioxide.
Molecular form: Which atoms contained in the molecule. For example, CH4
Structure Fitness: How atoms are ordande.
Isoföreningar: Molecular shape is similar but the structure shape is different (branched).
Coal:
 Carbon can occur in three different forms. The carbon atoms are arranged in different patterns.
 Carbon has four bonding opportunities.
Kolsort Atomic Structure Attributes Usage
Diamond
Crystal Pattern Hard  jewelry
 drills
Graphite Plate stock Soft
conducts electricity  Pencils
 Lubricant
Fullerenes "soccer"  superconductors
HC:
 There are different combinations of carbon and hydrogen.
 All hydrocarbons are flammable.
 When hydrocarbons burn formation of carbon dioxide and water
 Hydrocarbons found in eg oil, gasoline, stearic et al.
 Hydrocarbons are arranged in different series depending on how they are composed.

Alkanserien (methane series):
(Draw the structural form itself)
1st Methane CH4 Also called marsh gas

Second Ethane C2H6

3rd Propane C3H8 Used as LPG

4th Butane C4H10 Used as LPG
The hydrocarbons in alkanserien is saturated and contains only single bonds.
Alkene series:
(Draw the structural form itself)
1st Ethylene C2H4
The hydrocarbons in alkenserien is unsaturated and contains double bonds.

Alkyne series:
(Draw the structural form itself)
First ethyne C2H2
The hydrocarbons in alkynserien is unsaturated and contains triple bonds.

Alcohols:
Hydrocarbon in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by an OH group.

OH group is an oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H) stuck together.

All alcohols ending in-ol

(Draw the structural form itself)
Methanol CH3OH
 Known for wood alcohol
 Highly toxic
 A colorless liquid
 Can be used to fuel cars

Ethanol C2H5OH
 The alcohol found in beer, wine and spirits.
 Toxic
 Can be used to fuel cars

Glycol C2H4 (OH) 2
 Colorless liquid
 Highly toxic
 Used for coolant in cars

Glycerol, C3H5 (OH) 3
 Colorless and odorless liquid
 Not Toxic
 Used in skin creams and in the explosive nitroglycerin

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