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The Renaissance

Topic: History
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Renaissance and medieval times go hand in hand, there is no date can be pointed to, but one should regard the Renaissance as a cultural flow during the Middle Ages and its slut.Redan during 1100-1200 century, average time its renaissance as new healthy life pervades humanity. Provence was then starting point.
With Petrarka the 1300s sweeps a large renässansvåg in, which then stilled, medieval ideals will then be over. Italy was starting at that time.

High Renaissance breaks out during the 1400s in the middle. Italians were not with and support this new movement during 1100 and 1200 the number was probably at that time was not a united people. But when the same casting process was completed and the Italians got Dante's poetry (written in Italian) as the banner broke Renaissance in full bloom. The early Renaissance was limited to Tuscany, Lombardy and Emilia, where local autonomy was strongest. The rest of Italy followed suit in late av1400 century. Then spread the Renaissance ideals and theories that ripples to Spain, Portugal, France, England, Germany, and then also to Scandinavia. Of course, there was the small changes in each country, as many to put their mark. Floren was the new era Athens with its impressive collection of reformers and the Renaissance: Lorenzo de Medici, Giotto, Donatello, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Dante, Petrarka, Leon Battista Alberti, Boccaccio and Machiavelli.

It was ancient Rome that had become a beacon in the formation of the Renaissance worldview for it was only after Byzantium 'case in the mid-1400s you had a thorough knowledge of the Greek masters. The above applies across all levels (literature, reflection, architecture, philosophy, etc.). This is quite natural if one considers the Renaissance emerged. What remains from Greek antiquity, the latter had one until after Byzantium 'cases, only a few medallions available.

Formation ideals can be summarized in a quest for knowledge and trying to explain the unexplainable, find new discoveries. During the Renaissance, Europe is on the older cultures (China and Persia) and becomes the world leader in economy and technology. The training during the Renaissance was done by a layman Abild up in contrast to the Middle Ages when first educated in a monastery and then at university. At the beginning of the Renaissance in mediaeval formation centers difficult dilapidated monastery libraries mishandling and everything was regarded as backward by the Renaissance people. The frie learned during the Renaissance were often on the move and förkovrade their skills at different furstehov (such as Lorenzo de Medici's) and the rich trading cities. The Renaissance was also the great geographical discovery the time.

An important event for the literature of the Renaissance was the invention of the printing press. Previously, all written by hand, almost exclusively Church-sponsored, but in the 1300s and 1400s began to copy single sheet using wooden plates. The famous Biblia pauperum (the Poor Bible) consisted of those leaves to sammanhäftat. In 1438 Gutenberg invented the art of printing text with loose cast character types, and about 18 years later was printed the first Bible with this technology.

In Italy Petrarka (1304-1374) Renaissance first significant writer and he was followed by many: Boccaccio, Pulci, Ariosto, Tasso, Lorenzo de Medici, Machiavelli and da Vinci (poet). Spain's great Renaissance writer was Aleman, the Vega de la Barca and Cervantes who wrote the book Don Quixote de la Manca. France's greatest Renaissance author was Navarre, Rabelais and Montaigne. England's great contribution to the renaissance literature called Chauser, Spenser, Marlow and of course Shakespeare among others wrote these famous works: Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Richard III, A Midsummer Night's Dream, etc. In Portugal, wrote de Camoes his country's national epic Os Lusiadas the hard resistance of the Catholic Church. Dutch Erasmus of Rotterdam and the German Martin Luther wrote critical texts on the Catholic Church and laid the foundation for the Protestant.

Renaissance and Enlightenment

Because of the large differences in social conditions between countries, I have chosen to divide the comparison of these times in two parts, namely the Renaissance in comparison with the English and French Enlightenment.

A general similarity between the Enlightenment and the Renaissance were the many scientific experiments that were carried out, both in technology and science. They tried to explain the context and pressed forward at high speed. Another similarity between them was that through these experiments, among other things, sought to unmask old authorities (such as the Church) and prejudices. In contrast, the Renaissance more romantic than dreamy enlightenment that even though its thinking was based on 1600s science and philosophy were progressive. The Enlightenment philosophers wanted to influence, they brought a fight for tolerance, the prejudices that were directed against the authorities who relied on the power of tradition. Naturalness was a keyword as something that was naturally considered to be free from the traditions' fake bands. Something that separates the two epochs apart is that the Enlightenment writers often claimed that their stories were truth-based (and their audience was the bourgeoisie) which Renaissance writers did not. Renaissance audience belonged more to the higher social classes. Literacy spread of the Enlightenment in both England and France as the future of literature reached a larger audience than has been the case in previous eras.

Something that the same is true between the Renaissance and the Enlightenment was the political instability that characterized these eras with the fear of popular uprisings and revolutions.

English education

The so-called "Glorious Revolution" in England in the late 1600s provided a greater popular liberation and became a role model for all of Europe and the beginning of the Enlightenment. There were thinkers and scientists from England who designed the new mindset and a new worldview. The physicist Isaac Newton's revolutionary discoveries about gravity published in 1687 and he was with the philosopher John Locke (who wrote: Letters Concerning Toleration and Essay Concerning Human Understanding) style formed the Enlightenment.
It was the bourgeoisie's time, there were those who came to the century of the Enlightenment. They learned to read, which gave the authors an opportunity to live of their work, the English literature experienced something of a heyday as the prose found his own style and the bourgeois novel and the moral weeklies saw the light. Defoe's book on the maroon Robinson Crusoe, which besides is based on a real event, a Scottish sailor named Alexander Selkirk's fate (Defoe said to have treated the original stuff with great freedom), is typical of the Enlightenment. It will bless colonization with its image of Friday and ventilate the ideas of the Enlightenment: its belief in common sense, diligence, morality and the nature of people's innate goodness. Jonathan Swift was another significant English Enlightenment writers. He was a priest and and attended frantically in future debates. He is best known for his satires, and his book of Gulliver's Travels.

Enlightenment England and Renaissance Italy were quite similar in terms of the relative artistic freedom society offered. The authors could uninhibited write their texts without fear of reprisalier. Literature reached a wider audience during the Enlightenment when the bourgeoisie learned to read, and this meant of course that more people, clean numrärt, could be affected by the literature. Of this, one could conclude that literature played a major role during the Enlightenment, but I let it be unsaid.

French information

In France, the social picture is entirely different than the literary freedom that prevailed in England. Enlightenment authors always had to make sure that their house had several exits when they criticized the church and the royal house. They often had to type in cryptic terms, and many of them had to spend part of their lives in prison or during the run. This is like the Renaissance Spain and Portugal where the Catholic Church held an iron grip on the population, especially with the help of the Inquisition and its torture masters.

As Montesquieu wrote his Lettres persane he was the first to publicly criticize society, he does it through a feigned correspondence between a pair Persians traveling through Europe. They provide during the course of his views on Europe but to spare either the church or the royal family. His other work De l'esprit des lois paved the way for new ideas of freedom.

The most famous and pugnacious enlightenment author was Franois-Marie Arouet, known as Voltaire. It is rather his ideas survived, not literature that were considered rigid. His Lettres philosophiques became something of a manifesto during the Enlightenment in France.

The other great French enlightenment writer was Rousseau whose revolutione absorbing thesis: Man is by nature good, all evil will of society and civilization was due to post throughout his production. He was the era's most radical political writers and some of the fuel to the French Revolution thirty years later retrieved from his teachings.

In 1751, given the Enlightenment's most significant works out, it was the French encyclopedia. Among the one hundred and eighty employees who produced encyclopedia was France's top scientists and philosophers such as Rousseau, Montesquieu and Voltaire.

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