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Topic: Food
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History

2.1 Early history
Tea has been around for thousands of years and there were initially only green tea used in medicine for 300's in China. It is said that tea was discovered by the then Chinese emperor Shennong when it accidentally fell down some tea leaves into his cup with boiled water for the emperor.

Shennong means "Divine Farmer 'and he was, besides emperor, a botanist. Plants interested because Shennong and he tasted happy on the new drink, he thought about it and prayed that it would grow more tea bushes.
Another legend says that tea was used as early as the Han Dynasty, (see glossary) when the Indian prince Bodhidharma traveled from India to China. During one of his meditations he became sleepy and grabbed some leaves from a plant and began to chew on them. Sheets made him spirited again and he could continue his meditation.
The tea spread slowly and in 590 it had only spread to Japan. In Japan, however, it was only Buddhist monks who showed interest in the Chinese beverage.
Then 2.2 History
The tea slow the spread led to the drink did not reach Europe the foremost 1610th
The tea was imported from China to Holland by boat, where tea became a popular drink among high society. Those less wealthy individuals had not, however, afford the new drink.
The Dutch then spread the tea on to New York in the mid-1600s, there was once a popular drink. After tea had been around for about 3,000 years in the United States invented the tea bag is a wholesale trader from New York named Thomas Sullivan. In the US, also discovered something else in tea.
In 1904, organized a World St. Louis and during the exhibition there was a heat wave and tea vendors had difficulty getting their tea sold to customers. Richard Blechynden was one of the tea vendors, and he decided to cool their tea by ice. Customers are each excited in the cold tea and iced tea was thus uppfunnet.1 To make iced tea or any other any time there was a need for large amounts of tea.
The British tried to reason between 1830 - 1930 to fool around a million Tamils ​​from India to travel to Sri Lanka, where they would work on the tea estates. They were assigned a sum of money for the trip they would later pay back by working. Once they arrived in the tea plantations so they had to live cramped and a large number died.

Cultivation

3.1 Cultivation
Teblomman Camellia Sinensis grows on trees that you usually grow on the field. The flowers are pink and white has a suggestive appearance to the cherry blossoms.
Tree flowers grow in have always been called tea tree, and the reason why they say it depends on the tree, like the shrubs. Tea bushes growing from the early game and can grow up to 20 meters high, but they grow it so it becomes usually not higher than 1 - 1.5 meters and hence looks like a bush.
There are 4 different varieties of tea plant. They are in many ways similar to each other but there are differences. China variant, for example, several tribes and usually get about 3 meters high. This variant can withstand cold and can therefore easier cultivation in height. Assamvarianten however, is monophonic and can be about 18 meters high if it is allowed to grow wild. It is more sensitive to frost and therefore it is difficult for this variant that is grown at high altitudes as China variant capable of. Another difference between Assamvarianten and China variant is to Assamvarianten has slightly larger leaves than the Chinese version. There are five main categories of Assambusken:
The ljusbladiga Assam
The mörkbladiga Assam
Manipuri
The types Burma
The broadleaf Lushai
The other two variants are Cambodia variant and Hybrids. Cambodia variant is grown, but is naturally crossed with the other variants. Cambodia variant is, as Assamvarianten, unanimous. Hybrids have been developed by crossing the other variants with each other. They are therefore more resistant to e.g. disease and cold.
3.2 Combine
When it is time for picking the tea leaves from the various flavors of the tea bush, it is usually the top two tender leaves of the flower and a bud are picked. 3
How often do you harvest the different main types depends on the grower. For example, Darjeeling, India, the grower harvests his tea two or three times each year. The first time in years that the tea is harvested during the "First flush". Then start to pick in late February and then runs through mid-April. The tea leaves will then have a light tea flavor but a strong flavor of Muscat. Second time of year as the tea is harvested during the "Second Flush".
This picking begins in June, when the various tea bushes are more developed than in the "First flush". Tea harvested during the "Second Flush" has a lighter color and has a distinct flavor of Muscat grapes. The third and final pick is called "Third flush / Autumnal flush". When the tea for the third time to be picked so the grower can run into complications because the weather is often bad in Darjeeling in late autumn. Tea harvested during the "Third flush" have a rich smak.4
3.3 Factors affecting taste and quality
To the tea should taste as good as possible, there are certain things that farmers should consider when they grow and harvest their tea. They should think about where they plant tea bushes. Earth will namely preferably be a little acidic, therefore, requires a pH of about 5.8 or lower. Tea plant thrives in a warm, subtropical climate, but a more colder climates such as in the mountains can sometimes give a better tea. Frost can harm the tea plant.
Once it is time for harvest, one should be careful with his pick, then make sure you pick the right blade. Handpicked tea cans, therefore, be better than machine-picked teas, hand-picked tea is cheaper. After the tea has become machine- or hand-picked, they go through a number of production steps which further affect the tea's flavor and kvalitet.5 The tea leaves are dried, rolled and fermented. The tea leaves will then undergo a number of chemical processes. After fermentation, the tea leaves becomes heated. The tea leaves becomes so hot that the fermentation is stopped and the leaves are dried until they contain only about 3% moisture. Oolong tea is, however, through fermentation in a shorter time, and green tea is not fermented at all. 6
3.4 Teodlande countries
Camellia Sinensis can be grown in many places in Europe, Australia, America, Africa and Asia if the climate is right. There are a total of 50 countries that grow tea bushes and the three producing countries are;
Sri Lanka - The Sri Lanka produced almost only black Ceylon tea.
China - In China it is produced mostly green tea. Oolong and black tea is also a popular tesort grown in some places around China. China's production of tea has led to China has become the largest country in the world to cultivate tea.
India - The production of tea is almost as high in India as in China. In China produced much black tea, for example, Darjeeling.7

Work

4.1 The workers' situation
The large tea plantation requires workers and employees working several hours a day, and they are not considered to be a good picker if they do not gathers 30-35 kilo of tea leaves per day, which is about 7 - 9 kg finished te8 and it results in a salary at only 25 Swedish kronor.9
It is mostly children and women who become employees of the easier access to tea leaves and the bud at harvest.
The workers live in difficult conditions when there appears no account of the human rättigheter.10 Many workers also live in isolation from society and live in barrack-like buildings without their own homes.
The grower will often cheated out of money in transportation and staff will then work more and more often to produce more tea and make money for odlaren.11
4.2 Working
Workers 'situation has become more noticed and Fair Marked have helped growers have opportunities to invest, product development, streamline and diversify their produktion.12 Fair Marked promise grower that he gets a fair price for their tea, and that they improve workers' living conditions. Fairtrade also ensures the customer that child labor has not occurred.
Plantation Workers who have been given access to a home, medical care and education. Some planters even let the kids get to go to kindergarten and later to get an education. Fairtrade also ensure that the money that is earned when the tea is sold goes directly to those who plucked tebladen.13 When Fairtrade has helped growers so visited his plantation regularly by inspectors to ensure that no rules or rights bryts.14

Consumption

5.1 Statistical consumption
In 2006, world tea consumption grew by 1% and the figures then showed that 3.64 million tons of tea had been consumed around the world during the year.
It was also in 2006 that China for the first time consumed more tea than India when China's consumption had increased by a whopping 13.6%. The reason why China beat India were to increase their low only at 2:51%. There was a rise of India, where the average had remained at 1.6% in the last decade.
The high increases from 2006 onwards has led to China, Indien15 and Britain today are the countries that account for the bulk of the world's tekonsumtion.16
5.2 Transport
In order to consume as much tea we also need transportation. China and India manufactures Although his own tea, and need no longer transports except those within the country, but Britain and the rest of all the countries that do not produce their own tea must import his. Most of the tea shipped from their countries of origin to Europe, first to Hamburg in Germany has been Europe tecentrum since the mid-1800s. When the tea will then be passed on to the countries of destination as it is transported by ship but the truck is, however vanligast.17
Both ways of transporting the tea is bad for the environment. When e.g. ship transport as released carbon, incompletely burned remnants of charcoal, soot and incomplete remains of fuel. Oil leakage also occurs and leaks into the oceans, as do the remains of the ship's bottom paint. At the trucking it is released eg carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, which, like ships' emissions, harmful to nature and man.

Recycling

6.1 What can be recycled?
All tea a customer buys can be recycled. The packaging can be disposed of in paper packaging, plastic around packaging can be disposed of soft plastic, the protection around the tea bag can be thrown in the waste paper and tea bag can be put on the compost to the tea leaves contain minerals that give the earth näring.18
6.2 ecolabel
When the tea has come to the store packed it up for sale.
Greenhouse gases are then released into the air during transport and has affected the environment negatively and that various chemical agents have been used for producing none of the tea.
The Ecolabel REQUIREMENTS trying to make the production of tea as environmentally friendly as possible.
Emissions of greenhouse gases are to some extent unavoidable for transport but REQUIREMENTS trying to make any part of the tea lifecycle eco-friendly. If tea is approved and marked the requirement then it is sure that it has not been in contact with chemical pesticides, fertilizers or genetically modified organisms. REQUIREMENTS Also authorizes the production of working and social conditions at the place of production is good and fair, and that they determine if there may be included additives in the tea. At other goods controls also requires that the animals are well. Their feed should also be produced on the farm where they live. The industry then goes around in a cycle on the farm and it becomes even more own produced manure to spread on åkrarna.19

Analysis

Full tea's life cycle is a demanding task, and it has been since the first cup drunk and to allow children to take care of the cultivation and harvest, I think, is wrong. Neither the children or women have no rights at all, they live like dogs, and being treated like air. Had not been Fairtrade had enough situation for many more been the same. It is good that there are still people with hearts in the world. I can to some extent understand the grower. He grows as much tea as possible and then be cheated out of money. I can understand that he puts employees in more effort to make more tea, and earn as much money as possible, but treating people in a way is simply wrong. They may suffer for us to drink tea. Their situation is dire, but there are not many people think about when they buy their tea. Many people do not think to check if the product is eg REQUIREMENTS noticed when they buy it, but they should do. Because it produced so much tea every year, one should consider extra of what you are buying. Very produced tea recognizing that there are many workers who will toil, but if everyone bought REQUIREMENTS and / or Fairtrade tea so would the living situation changed for many.
It would not only help workers and growers, but also the environment. No chemical agents were used and there would be less environmentally damaging to produce tea.
People should also recover the tea and the packaging. Many throw only the packaging, plastics, tea bag etc. bin of laziness. They do not think about the consequences of foolish behavior.

Conclusion

I do not think tea is sustainable for the future if we continue as we do.
It produced too much pollution offense tea and it is just that tea that everyone buys.
Transport is long and too much greenhouse gases are emitted, which are slowly but surely destroying our environment and nature. Admittedly it's a little difficult to transport the tea over the world without emitting gases that damage the environment, but you can always use the example green trucks. If the tea is to be sustainable, it must also try to get all the growers to cultivate during REQUIREMENTS criteria and we consumers have to think about recycling.
At the moment, I think that tea is not sustainable, but it produced environmentally friendly teas and transport changes, I think producer of tea is sustainable.

Beatrice Stachurski

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