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Transport Vehicles

Subject: Modal
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CARS

When we talk about environmental problems in vehicles is the first of harmful emissions thinking of, but also other aspects that are important and serious. It include noise and vibration is common and particularly severe in city centers.

AIR POLLUTION

90% of urban air pollution comes from cars. Car exhaust contains tons of gases that are harmful to humans, animals and plants. They primarily attention are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, ozone, lead and particulate matter. Although carbon dioxide is recognized because of its effect on the ozone layer that contribute to worsen the greenhouse effect.
Petrol-powered cars make donations of all these gases, whereas diesel cars in the first place spewing out nitrogen oxides and particulates.
But as if that was not enough it contains car exhaust emissions, other pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, dibromoethane, dichloroethane, benzene, toluene, xylene, methanol, ethanol, acetaldehyde, acrolein bensapyren, bensaantracen, ethylene, propylene and formaldehyde. There are lots of strange substances that most people do not even know that they exist, let alone how they affect humans.
In humans, the first of the airways and lungs damaged by exhaust gases. Asthma attacks worse. Some substances in the exhaust gases are carcinogenic and some can damage the nervous system. It is first and foremost the diesel exhaust as carcinogenic. The exhaust gases also means that you become generally more tired, hängigare and more susceptible to diseases. They can also irritate the eyes and their smell is generally nauseating.

Primary damage of vehicle exhaust

Subject Damage
Carbon monoxide Impaired oxygen supply fatigue, concentration difficulties.
Nitrogen oxides Breathing difficulties, degradation of materials, acidification.
Ozone damage to vegetation, decomposing material.
Lead Raised blood pressure, brain damage, impaired performance.
Soot Damage to the airways, lung cancer.
Hydrocarbons cancer, contributes to the formation of ozone.
State Environmental Health Laboratory conducted a study on how troubled people is air pollution and found that 64% of people in the inner city of Stockholm was bothered by the exhaust gases, while only 46% in the suburbs was troubled.
The large amount of traffic and the uneven execution makes town centers are particularly vulnerable. Additionally preferred air pollutants from the surroundings towards the center because the population density and traffic heats the air, forming a move towards area.
Car exhaust also contributes to fouling and corrosion of buildings, sculptures and other objects. It is mostly the sulfur oxide that leads to this but also nitrogen dioxide, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide contributes to the breakdown.
Degradation goes faster and faster the more time goes on and the costs of preserving the only stone objects in the Old Town of Stockholm has been estimated at 60-80 million.
To protect people from too much harmful gases have limits too much carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide that may be in the air set. In Gothenburg it is estimated that 20 000 people live on the streets where the limit value for nitrogen oxide are exceeded, and that 4 000 people live along the streets where the limit for carbon monoxide exceeded.

NOISE

Even the noise of the cars is a problem. It gives no damage is immediately noticeable, but in the long run it is dangerous. Studies have shown that cardiac activity increases by everyday sounds. It also concluded that gastric and bowel movements are affected by noise. The noise also makes you become more tired and less able to concentrate. Interference is however relative. Different people perceive the same sound different disturbing.

ENERGY

Of the energy sent into the engine is only 1/3 that is used to maintain the vehicle speed and increase it. 1/3 led off with the cooling system, and 1/3 is lost out of the exhaust. Where there is a lot you can do to reduce emissions. By streamlining the engines could be used more energy to maintain momentum and less energy to spew hazardous emissions.

FUEL

Most cars run on unleaded petrol, but older cars can also blyberikad gasoline. The lead-free petrol is much greener than that contain lead. Instead of the lead has been added to the sodium or potassium compounds, which are less harmful. It is also environmentally friendly gasoline that contains less sulfur and less benzene. Since 1989, furthermore all new cars in Sweden fitted with catalytic converters, so-called catalyst. The catalytic converter, exhaust from a car cleaner than the exhaust from a power saw or outboard, but the gas volumes are still very large.
Buses run mostly on diesel, but recently has been natural gas buses become increasingly common. Natural gas is not as environmentally damaging as gasoline and diesel, but not known for certain if it gives no side effects.

In most cars it sits just one person. This is an incredible waste of money, the environment and energy. By several traveling in the same car or by bus or even better, tram / metro when you go inside a city saves an awful lot of energy. Most preferably, one can take the bike or walk, which saves far the most energy. Should you be a little longer, you can take the train instead. The train is by far the cleanest and most energy efficient option for long trips, if you are not really a struggle and walk or cycle.

RAIL

The railway is in many ways the best method of transport. It is energy-saving, simple, environmentally friendly and practical. On the other hand inordinately expensive. The environment would probably gain much they decreased their prices for train journeys, so that even ordinary people can afford to go.
The busiest railway network in Sweden is 11,236 km long.

POLLUTION

The electric railway has no direct air pollution, but when the electricity was produced, contaminants have occurred. This case electricity is produced by coal, oil or nuclear power plants. The diesel locomotives produce the same pollution as another diesel-powered vehicle. See the section on traffic above.

NOISE

The trains are noisy very much, but because they go one by one and with such a high speed bothers hardly, provided you do not live three meters from the track.

FUEL

Most locomotives is now of electricity in Sweden, but also diesel variants of power cuts or special operations there. The diesel locomotives spewing out lots of exhaust fumes, for a whole train is no easy weight to move. For engines fueled with carbon to obtain steam locomotive train ahead. This method was abandoned eventually. The electric locomotives are usually very eco-friendly, but if the bad methods of producing electricity is used, they can be real polluters.

ENERGY

Trains are very energy efficient because they take such large amounts of passengers at once. They go on rails also means that there will be very little friction. Transporting goods by rail requires in theory only, in electric mode, 1/7 as much energy in road transport. If the locomotive's diesel required more energy, but still less than the car.

FLIGHT

To fly it is clearly the fastest way to get around, if you do not count in check and other strötid. However, it is the most expensive, the most energy intensive and environmentally dangerous conveyance.

POLLUTION

An aircraft provides basically the same pollution as a car, but in much greater amounts. The contaminants include but not as much as those from a car because they fall far up into the air directly, but in the long term they will be marked by acid rain and deteriorating ozone layer.

NOISE

Air travel is noisy in itself very much when it flies past, or when taking off or landing, but because there are relatively few aircraft flying at the same time, it is not particularly irritating, provided you do not live next to the airport, which is very unusual.

ENERGY

Formerly, only propeller planes, but nowadays one has gone over to jet engine on all the big plan. The advantage is that it is easy. The disadvantage that it pulls incredibly much fuel. To make the engine more efficient and reduce fuel consumption, providing you these days engine with a fan driven by the gas turbine, which increases airflow and therefore traction.

BOAT

Sea traffic is no longer as important as it once was. If one is over a sea, it is common to fly over because it is much faster. Transport of goods over the oceans and seas is still by boat, unless it is very important and urgent. Canal boats and pleasure boats are quite common.

ENERGY

There are several different ways that boats can move on. Some of them are environmentally friendly, some of them non-environmentally friendly. One can, for example, ro, which does not go very fast and is very tiring if one is a longer piece. However, it is environmentally friendly.
Sailing is also very environmentally friendly, but is not particularly fast, and is very dependent on what the weather is like.
The most common nowadays boats operated by any type of oil. These provide large amounts of emissions, but travels quite a lot faster than those possible with limb strength of the wind.
Steamers are now very rare, but went on coal fired to produce steam that drives the boat forward with the help of a turbine.

POLLUTION

A boat rose or blown up by the wind make no contaminations in nature, whereas an oil-powered boat dirty in two ways. First, the exhaust gases, which are the same as for any other oil-powered or gasoline-powered vehicle. Furthermore, it often happens that the boats leaking oil in the water, or that the oil follows when the boat is cleaned. This is very dangerous for all plant and animal life in the water. Animals that swim into the oil is very difficult to break free and clean from oil that is sticky and a health hazard.

NOISE

Oil-powered boats sound much, but interferes hardly any as they go out on the water where nobody lives. Some smaller boats, however, give off a lot of noise in the archipelagos and channels, but they are not very numerous and are hardly a problem. To rowboats and sailboats does not sound so much need I probably do not even bring up.

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