In the Middle Ages there was a great battle between Catholic Church leaders, the pope and princes around the world.
The princes said that the Pope's main "area" was to save souls, not to meddle in politics.
This they thought they did excellent themselves!
With time it grows up a grievance against the Catholic Church.
This was perhaps mainly due to the luxurious life that took place in Rome.
They lived in sin, luxury and corruption.
The so-called "ordinary" people living in poverty and hunger
Luxury life in Rome was paid to so-called indulgences. It was a document that contained a declaration of indulgences. These were calls for church attendance, listening to the show, sing along with hymns and praying. They were sold to the people, and those who bought them in return promised sinners forgiveness.
This can not but conclude that the discontent is growing! The people demanded that the Church would be reformed. One of the most significant in the struggle for change was Martin Luther. He lived in Germany in 1483 -1546, and would become one of Europe's most important theologians. He was particularly against this particular indulgence system, which he considered was that the people relied on something other than the gospel. He wanted the people freely - and without compulsion - would find their way to salvation.
Luther also thought that the prince, not the Pope, would have supreme authority over the church. This movement was called Protestantism. It would be of great importance politically. Princes around the world refused to obey the pope, and took control of the church. (Luther's importance for theology, the German language, the liturgical life, adult education and community life in the middle and northern Europe has
been very profound, but it's another job ...) One of those who came to do this, ie, to take control of the church, was our own King Gustav Vasa.
Any support for the Reformation ideas tempts the cohesion of the European states. The new doctrine causes division, and came to a very large extent influence the story during this time. More than ever, religion puts its mark on society. Some say that it meant more to people's affinity than their language! That's a pretty strong statement, given what our language means to us. This knowledge may be able to make it "easier" to understand the princes' struggle to have to decide whether religion in his own kingdom. If you believe that religion keeps people together, is not it only "natural" that those who want the power to help unite his people with a religion. It should mean that the princes sought a stronger "kingdom" if they only managed to unite the people. All this I think fits very well agree with how fustarna often portrayed. As a power-mad people, with delusions of grandeur. (Exaggerated, of course, but superficially) to the constraint in turn can cause the people to turn against them, were well a thought that perhaps not occurred to them. Even today there are people, regardless of context, that believes that you can solve things by force. Will we never learn from history?
Charles IV, Emperor of Germany, also saw the threat to cohesion. The Lutheran church-state princes gave more power to the provinces. At all costs must be re-
form is turned down! He must, therefore, the German parliament to ban the Reformation. Protests rained from the Lutheran-minded princes and cities. It was after this event that the Reformation supporters were called Protestants.
The Emperor tries to with weapons to suppress Lutherans.
This leads, however, that he is forced to make peace in Augsburg in 1555, which came to be called the religion of peace.
It was decided that the Lutheran creed would be equally justified in the Catholic, and that the local prince had to decide what to believe his subjects would have.
This agreement did not lead to the peace we might have hoped.
Which in turn may not be so difficult to understand.
That all determines on its own, is a good idea.
It's just that this is true only for the princes.
It is only those who decide on themselves, not the people.
Such kind of "peace" can hardly be said to be any other advantage, than for those with power.
However, what is clear is that the multiple wills (kingdoms in this case) there is, the harder it will be to get along. All "fight" for their cause and their faith, and everyone thinks it is it is the only right one. Finding a balance of how great kingdoms, each party to avoid war, would not be an easy task. Had anything been able to solve it, the world would look different.
1600s - What were the causes of the war?
Religion Peace could not prevent Catholics and Lutherans continued to compete for which side would dominate.
Counter-Reformation also do their part, and the militant and active Calvinists were outraged that the peace provisions did not apply to them.
They condemned by both Catholics and Lutherans, but still won some terrain.
Calvinists are a church historical name for a portion of Protestantism which had been characterized by John Calvin.
He did not build as Luther in the doctrine of God's spiritual and temporal regiment, but on the belief that
Christ is Lord over both church and state. He envisioned a theocratic state in which full church privileges were reserved for those who proved their piety. Their supporters were enemies of the Pope, and there was nothing they loathed more than a papist, it was a Lutheran. In European countries and in South Africa is now used rather expression Reformed churches.
The German Empire was very fragmented in the 1600 century. This was due to the approximately 300 different principalities that were there. Most were independent, and the emperor had only influence a few of them.
In 1608 form many independent princes a union called the Evangelical Union in Germany. They do this to protect the religious freedom of the Catholic motreformen. This union was dissolved later in 1621 after the Protestants suffered a major defeat at White Mountains 1620th The Catholic League joined the Catholic League, which was formed by Duke Maximilian I. It was a military alliance between the Catholic princes and prelates in the German Empire. It was
intended to act as a counterweight to the Evangelical Union.
It was split even more.
I find it very fascinating that people of all time, fight for what they believe.
What I mean is that they are in their faith, are so convinced that they are right.
This drive makes them, as in this case, form different groups to combat the other.
It's good that you believe in their cause, but to be prepared to defend it, in any weather, in many cases can lead to a nasty end.
It feels as if it is the same problem here, namely that no one can find the balance between the thing that is "healthy" for the people as a whole.
It is no wonder that democratic ideas are born through the ages.
The interesting thing is just that it is always the weakest who are for democracy, and the higher up the social "ladder" they will, nevertheless, does democracy.
It's a strange effect power has on people.
The Catholic Church worked actively during this time, to reverse this trend. They wanted to get the Protestant princes to go over to the Catholic faith, and thus to force his subjects this belief. (It is very forced through the ages. Now - no exception - it's just the ways that differ slightly)
Ignatius Loyola was a Spanish nobleman who formed the words of Jesus Catholic societies, the Jesuit order. It was a military order, which would completely devote themselves to defending the Catholic faith. It took a lot of hard work by them and blind obedience to superior, mainly Pope. Discipline also demanded sacrifices of friendship, and of their own will and thought. Loyola's book "Spiritual Exercises" played a major role in their exercise of free will submission. Their obedience to the Pope, and their position as a teacher and counselor at the Prince's hoof, was that they were a dangerous opponent of the Reformation. From the Protestant completely black painted in ways that still affect us Swedes view
them. They had even though they were thwarted, some success to get princelings to convert. ("Switch sides" to another religion)
At this stage of history, breaking out of a dispute about the ruling power in Bohemia. (Today's Czech Republic) Most people who lived there were Protestants and they did not want to be controlled by a Catholic. The people ousted the Catholic Ferdinand II of Habsburg, when he wanted to force them to Catholic teaching. Instead added a Protestant ruler named Frederick V of the Palatinate.
1618 throws some BOHEMIAN out a couple of officers through a window at the castle in Prague. This was in protest against their religious freedom was violated. It is now not so long before the Thirty Years War breaks out.
After I read about the time before the outbreak of war, I feel that the term "boiling cauldron", fits very well. It seems that the War was only a matter of time. Though this feeling seems to be recurring, because every time I read about a war, I begin with the time before. And every time I think you can (partially) understand why the war broke out. The same question remains - we learn never to study history?
With so many different wills, it can not be anything else. The strong princes, and their power combined with other strong people. I can not believe that this is a purely religious war, as well as a war with only political purposes. It seems as if there was first a mixture of both. Some of the people wanted enough for their religion, while another part was fighting for his position of power. Some were probably involved only the fear of his own skin as well. It is well itself
no "worse" argument than others. I am among those who believe that we are all ourselves almost in tight places. Which makes me think that the fear of the power was a contributing factor. If it were so, it means that everyone, no matter what they believed, acted according to what they believed the strongest. (It may have been his own life or another of the reasons) While this is well in itself nothing new or old phenomenon, but it still works as in conflicts. (Even in small conflicts in the home, we do not want to give us, because we believe in the right we have the right number of times)
To get all the soldiers, and suspend taxes need effective management.
Gustavus Adolphus and his closest, Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna, expanded the Swedish government.
Axel Oxenstierna described as a very energetic man, who demanded much of himself and of those around him.
Sweden, as a central administration in Stockholm, which has many different agencies. It is only now that we can say that Stockholm is our capital. This is because everything in the state takes place in Stockholm, even if the king is not there. National Council became a "real" government that was always composed, and set up county councils around the country. It is also now år1630 that the current provincial division arrived.
The Swedish administration grew, and became one of Europe's most efficient.
Thirty Years War 1618 - 1648
What is happening now is that a whole series of war breaking out. In a variety of ways they hang despite everything. It has given them all a common name, which is Thirty Years War because it lasted for 30 years. I will touch on some kind of all, with emphasis on our own Sweden.
At the beginning of the war
Emperor Ferdinand strengthens its grip over the German princes at the start of the war.
He aimed to create a united Germany, (which future Bismarck would succeed) that would be controlled by a powerful emperor.
He met with resistance from other princes, and this worries other European states.
The Emperor's commander, Wallenstein, also demands money from princes to pay their warfare and soldiers.
Again, it is clear that the resistance increases, perhaps mainly from the Protestant princes, but also from the Catholic.
In Bohemia was emperor through Bavaria and Spain. Frederick of Palatinate forced to flee when his forces were in shambles outside Prague 1620th Ferdinand (of Habsburg) took a hard line over the vanquished. He was facing the German language (like Luther "he strikes a blow" for the German language!) And the Catholic religion. It sounded
also beheaded the nobles who could be a threat, and confiscated their land .. (Here you can talk about the law of the jungle!) Those opposite supported the emperor could do this "fine business" by buying up the confiscated estates. One of those who got rich in this way, our Gustavus Adolphus opponents at Lutzen, Wallenstein.
The trade threatened
Spain turns against Holland, who have freed themselves from the Spanish Empire in the 1570's.
While this is a sequence of events that is full of drama.
Spanish, their purpose was to "strangle" the Dutch shipping.
Holland, however, had a strong position of shipping, and many countries around the Baltic routed so into the conflict.
Spain succeeded in allying themselves with Poland, as well as some Hanseatic cities. Holland got his support of England and Denmark. In this conflict, defeated the Danes almost immediately. This in turn leads to an imperial army set up by the German commander Albrecht von Wallenstein, and they occupy Jutland. It makes the Danes and Germans a verbal agreement. If the Danes promise not to interfere with what the Germans have for business, they'll get back Jutland, which they get.
Who was this Albrecht von Wallenstein?
This was a man who would become highly publicized in this war contexts.
Wherever I read, is he.
He was Duke, and the German commander.
He was the son of a poor Protestant nobleman in Bohemia, but chose to switch to Catholicism as an adult.
One may wonder how this could happen, given the tensions that existed between them.
He is also one of those who would profit from the confiscated estates I mentioned earlier.
(Those that Ferdinand took from the Bohemian Protestants) Having had great success against the Protestant armies, he possessed Mecklenburg.
He will, however, set aside some time, but withdrawn after Sweden so successfully intervened in the war.
The decisive battle, where he meets Sweden, is in Lutz.
After that, he appears as the Catholic matter savior.
Wallenstein is a very enigmatic historical figure. It has not been agreed on his intentions in the war, but I think I have seen some similarities. He wanted to create a universal peace in Germany, with the help of religious tolerance. He also wanted a strong central power, and not least a great position of power itself. Once he tracks out and the emperor deposed him again on charges of high treason. On 35 February, he cleared out of the way of his own officers, on the emperor's orders. Here you can talk about that you'd like to have back free. People seem during this time betray anyone. It seems like they turned the tables by the wind, and then it paid off. The question is whether anyone could trust anyone in such a time? But perhaps one can not in war at all? (Is it otherwise?) It must be very difficult to determine who is friend or foe, in this era of total chaos.
.. And who was Tilly, Johann Tserclaes?
Another name that continually pops up in this context is "Tilly".
Who was he?
He also was a German general who was first in Spanish and then Austrian service.
When the Catholic League was formed, Tilly came to be its överbefälshavare.
It was also he who led the victorious battle at the "White Mountain" outside Prague, 8 november 1620th
When Wallenstein allocated the first time in 1630, it was Tilly who took over his troops.
It would become the defeat against Gustavus Adolphus in 1631, at the Battle of Breitenfeld who broke his long string of successes. He did not get to meet Gustavus Adolphus moving krigsskonst. It was in 1632 that Wallenstein regained access to power, and I suppose it has to do with this. It seems that these men were "succeed one another", and it would become Wallenstein who managed Sweden.
Back to Sweden's role in the war
Of all the events in Europe, feel threatened Sweden.
One can find many different causes, which may have affected Sweden.
Sweden dominated including large parts of the Baltic trade since long.
Perhaps mainly Finland and the Baltics.
This area grew during the late 1500s and early 1600s, when Sweden won several wars against Poland.
(When I examined the facts, it turned out that Sweden has been in several wars with Poland. Though this may have played a role in determining whether we would participate in the Thirty Years War., I have not gone into these wars deeply, but only reflected on the they have occurred.
1592 was Gustav Vasa grandson Sigismund king. He had previously been elected king of Poland. He, however, thrown out of Sweden in 1599 by his uncle, Charles IX. This leads back to the war between Poland and Sweden, which continues when Karl's son, Gustav II Adolf in 1611 becomes king. Again mixing religion into. Sigismund was a Catholic, and therefore expect the German Emperor's support. This worried of course the Swedish king.
There is also a great concern of our king, Gustavus Adolphus, that Spain planned to build naval bases on the Baltic south coast. France provided financial support for Sweden to interfere in the war, and stop the Emperor's power extraction. Gustavus Adolphus also saw how the Protestant distress spread itself. While this may be cited as reasons. In all euphemistic propaganda written that Sweden is entering the war to help the Protestants. Perhaps it was called so because it "sounded better". It has, however, found an old letter that the king wrote to his chancellor, Axel Oxenstierna already 1628th In this, we read that the king understood that it was a European war that was raging, and that Sweden's position was at stake. He also points out that all these "small" wars going to say to each other, so they can only be considered as one big war. Through these lines, I think you can see that it is not "just" about religion, if any. This letter was clearly intended for a pair of eyes, Oxelstiernas, and thus
Perhaps it was the most honest truth described.
"... Sweden's position was at stake ...." Not talking our king about religion here?
I think these lines gossip about honor, more than about religion.
That he is concerned about how Europe should look at the country of Sweden.
He wants to maintain the status we have, as a country of respect.
Once we are into some kind of form of power. That it was important to prove great for others, and invulnerable. I've always believed in that respect - that you get if you dare to show how vulnerable we are - really. This is perhaps only among "småfolkets relations" not between different states. Who knows, by the way, has anyone ever tried?
One may wonder if religion is used to it somehow is a valid reason, it can be "sounds better" than to admit their lust for power. You may want to hide behind this reason, because it simply "sounds better"?
Sweden to Germany
It was in the summer of 1630 that the Swedish king disembarked on German soil with their soldiers.
There were Swedes, but also a lot of pimples.
It is said that the first thing he did after landing was to pray to God for help, and the
time. The Swedes also had great success, and it was not long before they had come a long way in Germany. If it then depended on the prayers you could speculate in. I thought to mention a couple of all kinds, those who are on roads down to Lützen.
Gustavus Adolphus in 1631 defeated the Imperial army at Breitenfeld. The Imperial was then under the leadership of the German commander Johann Tserclaes Tilly. (That's when Tilly had to resign, which I previously wrote about)
Now opened throughout southern Germany Gustavus Adolphus took towns and castles down in southern Bavaria. In early December, he was only about 10 mil from the Emperor in Vienna. In spring 1632 they conquered namely Bavaria, and was then in what the book calls "the heart of Europe". The emperor felt pressured, and call in Wallenstein again, which he had previously committed.
Battle of Lützen
In November 1632 were the military forces in Germany Gustavus Adolphus controlled, both own and allies, reached about 150,000 men.
It is now dominated most of Germany.
The Catholics had a total of about 100,000 men in their armies.
On 4 November, Albrecht von Wallenstein, as I mentioned earlier, regained confidence as commander in chief, and then marched his troops to Lützen, where they camped.
This reached Gustav II Adolf, and he now took away the chance to attack Wallenstein. Early on the morning of November 5 put the Swedish army against Lützen. On the evening of 5 november beat the Swedes, fully combat ready, night camp on the fields just east of Lützen. It was now awaiting the dawn of the wet and muddy fields during the night of November 6. One may wonder
what was going on in their head, when they are just waiting for something so uncertain.
November night is said to have been very cool.
At midnight, the night managed to Wallenstein send an order to Pappenheim to go at once to Lützen.
Pappenheim was another German military, which was Tilly's closest.
He quickly came to the rescue, but came to be mortally wounded in battle.
(It pops up new names all the time, so I will not tell you about all of them, which are among others that Pappenheim)
Gustav appointed to Gustav II Adolf the Great of Sweden's parliament, called in Germany for the Lion from Scandinavia. Only those names gossip about greatness, power position and maybe even (in world charm anyway) masculinity.
After a gunshot wound received at Dirschau king of Poland, he could not wear armor, but only one älghudskryller he was wearing that fateful November day.
When the morning mist belatedly eased so began the attack. The time had by then had become the 1100th They crossed the river Flossgraben. The cavalry and artillery were able to cross the bridge, while the "foot soldiers" had to build rafts. The fog grew again, and it now had to wait for the fog would be easy. There were always poor visibility on the battlefield, much because of the smoke from the black powder. Here, the fog along with the smoke, the visibility at times was non-existent. In the Swedish field diary says: "You could barely see each other at four paces."
Shortly after eleven o'clock, so finally eases fog. The Swedes attacked now against the imperial troops. The Swedish army was made up of many different nationalities, and there is much to read about this, I noticed.
This attack led Gustavus Adolphus came to what might be called his death ride. Early in the morning he had changed horses and rode on a horse named Streiff. This horse was very fast, and so did the king rode away from his squad. He rode for the rest of a squad consisting of Småland. It seems that the different troops were divided into groups, depending on where you came from. I have also encountered the "Östergötland" troops.
He rode alone therefore was, when he was hit by a shot in the left elbow that broke his bone shaft. Although the horse had been hit by the same bullet in the withers. In order to restrain him, the king had to use his right hand. The few companions who caught up with the King tried to help him. Equestrian Battle thickened, however, and the King was hit by another shot from a horse-pistol. This shot entered the right shoulder and into the lung, whereupon the king fell
of the horse. According to some sources, was the king's companion equerry von der Schulenberg, combs junk successor Truchsess, Pagen Leublfing and liveknekten Anders Jönsson. Livknekten who tried to protect the king was cut down. Leublfing in turn tried to get the king on his horse, but he was seriously wounded.
A short time after the first two shots were Gustavus Adolphus finally the fatal shot, which hit his head. This occurred about one o'clock in the day. The king sacked in on just the body. Streiff galloped back to the Swedish lines with the fired guns left in holsters
The battle was now over, and the exhausted Swedish troops camped on the battlefield. The whole night was looking over a thousand soldiers with torches after the king
Over 5,000 had been wounded or killed in the Swedish troops.
It would take a month before Stockholm was reached by the death news of the king.
On the imperial side, had both Wallenstein and his son Berthold who also participated, were wounded.
The two, Wallenstein and the Swedish king, had met in Lützen, and Gustavus Adolphus lost their lives there. The Swedes, however, drove the German army to retreat, but for them it was a victory to have killed the Swedish king.
The war continues
The war continued successfully for Sweden even after the king's death.
The war in its entirety, would continue in hela16 years.
There is so much to write about this war, because it lasted a full 30 years.
I can not take everything, because then it will be a whole book.
I have read a lot, but choose to conclude by describing peace came at last.
So it would still take a full 30 years before people could unite. You'll remember that even if peace formally signed år1648, it does not mean that all disturbances disappeared. That includes lots of paintings preserved from this time. They talk about how the war changed people. They show us the very cruelest possible behaviors. Men who kill one another, just to get to his woman. People pillaging, stealing and plundering. Many behave as if everything was total lawlessness in the country where they go. The only way to stop them, kill them.
This is a pattern that recurs in several contexts, I think. (Also in other than just war, of course, that we are influenced by our experiences) How do we actually affected by war? Disrupted our way of right and wrong completely out of balance? I think we have very clear evidence that, even in our modern times. (No names, but think well of Nazism and police murder)
Peace of Westphalia
It would take the whole 6 years, before finally could organize a general peace conference, and another 4 years before the terms were finalized and signed the 1648th
Surely this is completely insane that it will take a full 10 years to negotiate peace as all so wished for.
As a small "layman" can you just not understand this!
Sweden was one of those that can be "pulled out" of the negotiations. First they wanted to not accept the first compensation they were offered. The final reparations to Sweden, which was later adopted were of five million thalers, western part of the Duchy of Pomerania, the port town of Wismar and the secular bishop pins Bremen and Verden. Sweden's newfound status as a European power with the action in the Empire's affairs were very costly. It was through this many enemies, not least from the Baltic States. Again we see the use of the word power. I marvel much over the choice of words - it was not a religious war? If you might have lost the thread along the way?
I also want to mention that this peace was our modern state system's birth. They began to talk about Europe as a system of independent states. These negotiated, fought, signed agreements and lurpassade on each other. Just as in Europe today. The international politics had arrived.