.nu

Obair scoile agus aistí ó meánscoil
Cuardaigh obair scoile

Guam

(Críoch de na Stáit Aontaithe)
Tíreolaíocht
Achar iomlán: 541 km2; achar talún: 541 km2

Réimse Comparáideach: beagán níos mó ná trí huaire an méid de
Washington, DC

Teorainneacha Talún: none

Chósta: 125.5 km

Éilimh muirí:

Crios tadhlach: 12 nm;

Scairbh ilchríochach: 200 m;

Breisithe Chrios Eacnamaíochta: 200 nm;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Aeráide: mara trópaiceach; Go ginearálta te agus tais, stiúrtha ag
tradewinds thuaidh; séasúr tirim ó Eanáir go Meitheamh, séasúr na báistí ó
IÚIL-noll; beag athrú teochta séasúrach

Tír-raon: bhunadh volcanic, timpeallaithe ag sceireacha coiréil; Réasúnta cothrom
coraline Plateau aolchloiche (foinse an chuid is mó uisce úr) le cósta géar
aillte agus machairí cósta caol i dtuaisceart, íseal-ardú cnoic i lár,
Sléibhte i southwestern

Acmhainní Nádúrtha: iascaireacht (den chuid is mó neamhfhorbartha), turasóireacht (especiallywhen
ón tSeapáin)

Úsáid talún: 11% thalamh arúil; 11% bharra buana; 15% móinéir agus féarach;
18% foraoise agus coillearnaí; 45% eile

Comhshaol: squalls minic Le linn séasúr na báistí; Faoi réir Réasúnta
smaoineamh, ach tá typhoons fhéadfadh an-millteach (Go háirithe i mí Lúnasa)

Nóta: is mó agus oileán ó dheas sa oileánra Oileáin Mariana;
suíomh straitéiseach in iarthar Thuaidh Aigéan Ciúin 5.955 km siar siar ó dheas ó-
Honolulu thart ar thrí cheathrú ar an mbealach idir Haváí agus na hOileáin Fhilipíneacha

PeopleSoft
Daonra: 141.039 (Iúil 1990), ráta fáis 2.8% (1990)

Ráta breithe: 26 breitheanna / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Ráta báis: 4 bás / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Ráta Glan imirce: 5 imircigh / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Ráta mortlaíochta naíonán: 12 bás / 1,000 breitheanna beo (1990)

Ionchas saoil ag breithe: 70 bliain fireann, 75 bliain baineann (1990)

Ráta Iomlán torthúlachta: 3.0 leanaí a rugadh / bean (1990)

Náisiúntacht: ainmfhocal-Guamanian (í); aidiacht-Guamanian

Roinn Eitneach: 47% Chamorro, 25% Tagálaigis, 10% Caucasian,
18% Sínis, tSeapáinis, Cóiréis, agus Eile

Smoke 98% Caitliceach Rómhánach, 2% eile

Teanga: Béarla agus Chamorro, an chuid is mó cónaitheoirí dátheangach; Seapáinis
Chomh maith leis sin go forleathan labhartha

Litearthacht: 90%

Lucht saothair: 54,000; 42% rialtais, 58% príobháideach (1988)

Saothair Eagraithe: 13% de Labor Force

Rialtas
Long-fhoirm-ainm: Críoch an Guam

Cineál: Eagraithe, críoch neamhchorpraithe na Stáit Aontaithe

Caipiteal: Agana

Rannáin Riaracháin: none (de chríoch an Stáit Aontaithe)

Neamhspleáchas: none (de chríoch an Stáit Aontaithe)

Bunreacht: An tAcht Orgánach de 1 Lúnasa, 1950

Córas dlí: NA

Saoire náisiúnta: Lá Discovery Guam (an chéad Luan i Márta), 6 Márta, 1989

Brainse Feidhmiúcháin: US Uachtarán, Gobharnóir, Leifteanant Gobharnóir, Comh-Aireachta

Tionscal reachtaíochta: Reachtas seomra amháin

An Brainse Breithiúnach: nUaschúirteanna na Guam (An Chúirt Dúiche Chónaidhme)

Ceannairí:
Príomh Stáit-Uachtarán George BUSH (ó 20 Eanáir 1989);

Cheann an Rialtais-Ghobharnóir Joseph A. Ada (ó NA Samhain 1986)

Páirtithe polaitiúla agus ceannairí: Páirtí Daonlathach (rialuithe an
reachtas); Poblachtach Páirtí (páirtí an Ghobharnóra)

Vótáil chomhchoiteann: Uilíoch ag aois 18; Saoránach de Stáit Aontaithe Poist, ach nach bhfuil vóta a chaitheamh i Stáit Aontaithe Poist
toghcháin uachtaránachta

Faighteoir:
Gobharnóir-ualach leanúnach ar NA Samhain 1986 (in aice le bheith ar siúl
Samhain 1990);

Reachtas-ualach leanúnach ar 8 Samhain 1988 (in aice le bheith ar siúl
Samhain 1990);
torthaí-faoin gcéad de vóta ag páirtí NA;
seats- (21 iomlán) Dhaonlathach 13, Poblachtach 8;

Teach Ionadaithe na Stát Aontaithe-deiridh ar siúl 8 Samhain
1988 (in aice a bheidh ar siúl Samhain 1990);
Guam Toghann toscaire nonvoting amháin;
torthaí-faoin gcéad de vóta ag páirtí NA;
seats- (1 iomlán) Poblachtach 1

Communists: none

Tabhair faoi deara: Tá an caidreamh idir Guam agus na Stáit Aontaithe faoi Dhlínse na
Oifig Críche agus Gnóthaí Idirnáisiúnta, SAM Roinn na
Interior

Ionadaíocht taidhleoireachta: none (de chríoch an Stáit Aontaithe)

Bratach: gorm dorcha le teorainn dearg caol ar gach ceithre taobh; Is Láraithe a
dearg-bordered, dúirt, éilips ingearach ina radharc trá, outrigger
canoe le seol, agus crann pailme leis an bhfocal GUAM forshuite i gcló trom
Litreacha Dearg

Geilleagar
Forbhreathnú: Tá an geilleagar bunaithe ar Stáit Aontaithe Poist chaiteachas míleata agus ar ioncam
ó thurasóireacht. Thar na 20 bliain anuas TAR an tionscal turasóireachta tar éis fás
go tapa, a chruthú borradh tógála d'óstáin nua agus leathnú
cinn níos sine. Uimhrithe Cuairteoirí thart 800,000 i 1989. Tá an déantúsaíochta beag
Áirítear san earnáil teicstíle agus éadaigh, dí, bia, agus é ag breathnú
Táirgeadh. Oibríonn thart ar 58% den lucht saothair don earnáil phríobháideach agus an
thaistil don rialtas. Bia agus tionsclaíocha an chuid is mó earraí allmhairithe, a bhfuil thart ar 75%
ó na Stáit Aontaithe. I 1989 ba é an ráta Dífhostaíochta thart ar 3%, síos ó 10% in
1983

OTN: $ 1.0 billiún, in aghaidh an duine, $ 7.675; an ráta fáis iarbhír de 20%
(1988 est.)

Ráta boilscithe (praghsanna tomhaltóirí): 5.9% (1988)

Ráta Dífhostaíochta: 3% (1989 est.)

Buiséad: ioncam is $ 208.0 milliún; caiteachas $ 175,000,000, Lena n-áirítear
Caiteachas caipitil de $ 17,000,000 (1987 est.)

Onnmhairí: $ 39,000,000 (sab, 1983);
-commodities den chuid is mó transshipments táirgí peitriliam scagtha,
copra, éisc;
Comhpháirtithe U.S. 25%, daoine eile 75%

Allmhairí: $ 611,000,000 (cal, 1983);
tráchtearraí-chuid is mó peitriliam amh agus táirgí peitriliam, bia,
earraí monaraithe;
comhpháirtithe-na Stáit Aontaithe 77%, daoine eile 23%

Fiach seachtracha: $ NA

Tháirgeadh tionsclaíoch: ráta fáis NA%

Leictreachas: 500,000 cumas kW; 2,300 milliún kWh a tháirgtear,
16.660 kWh in aghaidh an duine (1989)

Tionscail: US míleata, turasóireacht, scagtha peitriliam, tógáil,
TÁIRGÍ CONCRETE, a phriontáil agus a fhoilsiú, a phróiseáil bia, teicstílí

Talmhaíocht: Réasúnta neamhfhorbartha is mó bia allmhairithe;
Torthaí, glasraí, uibheacha, muiceoil, éanlaith chlóis, mairteoil, copra

Cúnamh: NA

Airgeadra: Tá airgeadra US bponc

Rátaí malairte: Tá airgeadra US bponc

Bhliain fioscach: 1 Deireadh Fómhair - 30 meán fómhair

Cumarsáid
Mórbhealaí: bóithre 674 km uile-aimsire

Calafoirt: Apra Harbor

Aerfort: 5 iomlán, ceithre inúsáidte; 3 le rúidbhealaí buan-dromchla;
aon cheann le rúidbhealaí níos mó ná 3,659 m; 3 le rúidbhealaí 2.440-3.659 m;
aon cheann le rúidbhealaí 1.220-2.439 m

Teileachumarsáid: 26.317 teileafóin (1989); stáisiún-3:00, 3:00, 3 teilifíseáin;
Stáisiún talún 2 tAigéan Ciúin Intelsat

Fórsaí cosanta
Tabhair faoi deara: Is é cosaint an fhreagracht ar an Poist
.On
Guatamala
Tíreolaíocht
Achar iomlán: 108.890 km2; Achar Talún: 108.430 km2

Réimse Comparáideach: beagán níos lú ná mar a Tennessee

Teorainneacha Talún: 1.687 km iomlán; An Bheilís 266 km, El Salvador 203 km,
Hondúras 256 km, Meicsiceo 962 km

Chósta: 400 km

Éilimh muirí:

Scairbh ilchríochach: Nach Sonraítear in aon;

Breisithe Chrios Eacnamaíochta: 200 nm;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Díospóidí: Éilimh Bheilís, ach tá na idirbheartaíocht Teorann ar siúl

Aeráide: trópaiceach; te, humid i hísealchríocha; with i highlands

Tír-raon: den chuid is mó sléibhte le machairí cósta caol agus rollta
Plateau aolchloiche (Peten)

Acmhainní nádúrtha: amhola, nicil, coillte annamh, iasc, chicle

Úsáid talún: 12% thalamh arúil; 4% bharra buana; 12% móinéir agus féarach;
40% foraoise agus coillearnaí; 32% eile; Áirítear 1% uiscithe

Comhshaol: volcanoes iomadúla i sléibhte, le go minic foréigneacha
creathanna talún; Chósta faoi réir Mhuir Chairib le hurricanes agus stoirmeacha trópaiceacha eile;
dífhoraoisiú = creimeadh ithreach; Truailliú Uisce

Tabhair faoi deara: Níl aon cuanta nádúrtha ar chósta thiar

PeopleSoft
Daonra: 9,097,636 (Iúil 1990), ráta fáis 2.6% (1990)

Ráta breithe: 37 breitheanna / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Ráta báis: 9 bás / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Ráta Glan imirce: - 3 imirceach / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Ráta mortlaíochta naíonán: 61 bás / 1,000 breitheanna beo (1990)

Ionchas saoil ag breithe: 60 bliain fireann, 65 bliain baineann (1990)

Ráta Iomlán torthúlachta: 5.1 leanaí a rugadh / bean (1990)

Náisiúntacht: ainmfhocal-Guatamala (í); aidiacht-Guatamala

Rannáin Eitneach: 56% ladino (mestizo-mheasctha Indiach agus na hEorpa
shinsearacht), 44% Dúchasach

Creideamh: ALMEDA Chaitliceach Rómhánach; Chomh maith leis sin Protastúnach, traditionalists
Maya

Teanga: Spáinnis, ach níos mó ná 40% den daonra labhraíonn Indiach
Béarla mar theanga bunscoile (18 canúintí Indiach, lena n-áirítear quiche, Cakchiquel,
Kekchi)

Litearthacht: 50%

Lucht saothair: 2,500,000; Talmhaíocht 57.0%, déantúsaíocht 14.0%,
13.0 Seirbhísí%, 7.0% Tráchtála, 4.0% tógála, iompar 3.0%,
0.8% Fóntais, 0.4% mianadóireachta (1985)

Labor Eagraithe: 8% den lucht saothair (1988 est.)

Rialtas
Long-fhoirm-ainm: Poblacht na Guatemala

Cineál: Poblacht

Caipiteal: Guatamala

Rannáin Riaracháin: 22 ranna (departamentos,
uatha Departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula,
El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatamala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa,
Peten, Quezaltenango, quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos;
Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa

Neamhspleáchas: 15 Meán Fómhair, 1821 (ón Spáinn)

Bunreacht: 31 Bealtaine, 1985 Éifeachtach 14 Eanáir, 1986

Córas dlí: Córas dlí sibhialta; athbhreithniú breithiúnach ar Achtanna reachtaíochta; TAR ÉIS
nach nglactar éigeantach ICJ Dlínse

Saoire náisiúnta: Lá na Saoirse, 15 Meán Fómhair (1821)

Brainse feidhmiúcháin: Uachtarán, Leas-Uachtarán, Comhairle na nAirí
(Comh-Aireachta)

Brainse reachtaíochta: seomra amháin Comhdháil Náisiúnta (congreso Nacional)

An brainse Breithiúnach: Cúirt Bhreithiúnais Uachtarach (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

Ceannairí:
Ceann Stáit agus Cheann an Rialtais-Uachtarán Mario Vinicio CEREZO
Arevalo (ó 14 Eanáir, 1986); Leas-Uachtarán Roberto Carpio Nicolle
(Ó 14 Eanáir, 1986)

Páirtithe polaitiúla agus ceannairí: Christian Páirtí Daonlathach (GDC)
Marco Vinicio Cerezo Arevalo;
Aontas Náisiúnta centrist (UCN), Jorge Carpio Nicolle;
Gluaiseacht Saoirse Náisiúnta (mln), Mario Sandoval Alarcon;
Gníomh Gluaiseacht Sóisialta (MAS), Jorge Serrano Elias;
Réabhlóideach Páirtí (PR) i comhrialtas le Páirtí Athnuachana Náisiúnta (PNR),
Alejandro Maldonado Aguirre;
Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach (PSD), Mario Solarzano Martinez;
Barántúla Ionad Náisiúnta (CAN), Mario David Garcia;
Aontaithe Frith-Cumannach Páirtí (PUA), Leonel Sisniega;
Ag teacht chun cinn Gluaiseacht do Harmony (MEC), Louis Gordillo;
Páirtí Daonlathach Chomhoibriú Náisiúnta (PDC), Adan Fletes;
Páirtí Daonlathach Institiúideach (PID), Oscar Rivas;
Náisiúnach Aontaithe Tosaigh (FUN), Gabriel Giron

Vótáil chomhchoiteann: Uilíoch ag aois 18, éigeantach do literates, deonacha maidir le
illiterates

Faighteoir:
Uachtarán-ualach leanúnach ar an 3 Nollaig 1985 (in aice a bheidh ar siúl 3 Samhain, 1990);
Roimhe Mario Vinicio Cerezo Arevalo (GDC) 38.7%, Jorge Carpio
Nicolle (UCN) 20.2%, Jorge Serrano Elias (PDC / PR) 14.8%;

Comhdháil-ualach náisiúnta leanúnach an 3 Samhain 1985 (in aice le bheith ar siúl
3 Samhain, 1990);
torthaí-DCG 38.7%, 20.2% UCN, an PDC / PR 13.8%, mln / PID 12.6%;
CAN 6.3%, PSD 3.4%, an PNR 3.2%, PUA / spraoi / MEC 1.9%;
seats- (100 iomlán) DCG 51, UCN 22, mln 12, an PDC / PR 11, PSD 2, an PNR 1, CAN 1

Communists: Guatemalan Labor Páirtí (PGT); Radacach príomh Guerrilla chlé
grúpaí-an Guerrilla Arm na mBocht (EGP), an Eagraíocht Réabhlóideach na
Daoine i Armas (ORPA), na Fórsaí Armtha Rebel (FAR) agus easaontaigh PGT

Grúpaí polaitiúla nó brú Eile: Cónaidhme Cumainn Lucht Tráchtála agus
Tionscail (CACIF), Grúpa Tacaíochta Frithpháirteach (GAM), Aontacht do Coitianta agus Labor
Gníomh (UASP), talúntais Group Úinéirí (UNAGRO), an Coiste um Campesino Unity
(CUC)

Ball de: CACM, CCC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, CCCÉ, ICAO, EIT, IDA,
IDB Idir-Mheiriceánach Banc Forbartha, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat,
INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, IWC Comhairle Cruithneachta Idirnáisiúnta, an OAS, ODECA, PAHO,
Sela, na Náisiún Aontaithe, UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Ionadaíocht taidhleoireachta: Ambasadóir Rodolfo Rohrmoser siar;
Seansaireachta ag 2220 R Sráid NW, Washington DC 20008; Teileafón (202)
745-4952 trí 4954;
TÁ Guatemalan Consalachtaí Ginearálta i Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, Nua-Eabhrac, agus San Francisco;
Stáit Aontaithe Poist Ambasadóir Thomas F. STROOCK; Ambasáid ag 7-01 Avenida de la
Reforma, Crios 10, Guatamala Cathrach (Is seoladh poist APO Miami 34,024);
teileafóin à ¥ • 502A (2) 31-15-41

Bratach: trí bannaí ingearach cothrom de gorm éadrom (taobh crochán), bán, agus
gorm éadrom le armas dírithe sa bhanda bán; An armas
folaíonn Quetzal glas agus dearg (an t-éan náisiúnta) agus scrolla ar a bhfuil an
inscríbhinn LIBERTAD 15 de Septiembre de 1821 (an dáta bunaidh
Neamhspleáchas ón Spáinn) go léir forshuite ar péire de raidhfilí crosáilte agus
Péire claimhte thrasnaigh agus a cumadh ag fleasc

Geilleagar
Forbhreathnú: Tá an geilleagar bunaithe ar an talmhaíocht, Cé acu freagrach as
25% de OTI Fostaíonn, thart ar 60% den lucht saothair, agus soláthairtí dhá thrian
Onnmhairí a. Cuntais Tionscal feadh thart ar 20% den OTI agus 15% den lucht saothair
de bhfeidhm. TAR ÉIS An Geilleagar reentered céim fás mall, ach tá ag cur bac
neamhchinnteacht polaitiúil. Sa bhliain 1988 An Geilleagar fhás de 3.7%, an Tríú
Bliain i ndiaidh a chéile d'fhás éadrom. Athchóiriú eacnamaíoch rialtais do Tugadh isteach
ó 1986 An bhfuil chobhsaithe Rátaí Malairte agus An bhfuil Chuidigh go eistear
Brúnna boilscithe. TAR an ráta boilscithe thit ó 36.9%
i 1986 go 15% i 1989.

OTI: $ 10800000000, per capita, $ 1.185; ráta fáis iarbhír 1.3% (1989 est.)

An ráta boilscithe (praghsanna tomhaltóirí): 15% (1989)

Ráta Dífhostaíochta: 13%, a bhfuil 30-40% mórchuid (1988 est.)

Buiséad: ioncam is $ 771,000,000; caiteachas $ 957,000,000, Lena n-áirítear
Caiteachas caipitil de $ 188,000,000 (1988)

Onnmhairí: 1020000000 $ (sab, 1988);
tráchtearraí-caife 38%, bananaí 7%, 7% siúcra, cardamom 4%;
comhpháirtithe-na Stáit Aontaithe 29%, El Salvador, FRG, Costa Rica, an Iodáil

Allmhairí: 1500000000 $ (cal, 1988);
tráchtearraí-bhreosla agus táirgí peitriliam, innealra, gráin, leasacháin,
mótarfheithiclí =
comhpháirtithe-na Stáit Aontaithe 38%, Meicsiceo, FRG, an tSeapáin, El Salvador

Fiach seachtracha: $ 3.0 billiún (Nollaig 1989 est.)

Tháirgeadh tionsclaíoch: ráta fáis 3.5% (1988 est.)

Leictreachas: 807,000 cumas kW; 2,540 milliún kWh a tháirgtear,
280 kWh in aghaidh an duine (1989)

Tionscail: siúcra, teicstílí agus éadaí, troscán, ceimiceáin,
peitriliam, miotail, rubair, turasóireacht

Talmhaíocht: cuntais don 25% de OTI; Earnáil an chuid is mó tábhachtach de Geilleagar
Cur agus dhá thrian chun tuilleamh a onnmhairiú; Príomh-
barra-sugarcane, arbhar, bananaí, caife, pónairí, cardamom;
beostoic-eallach, caoirigh, muca, sicíní; allmhairí bia

Drugaí aindleathacha: léiritheoir aindleathach poipín óipiam agus cannabais do na
Trádáil Drugaí Idirnáisiúnta; TAR an rialtas i mbun ón aer
deireadh a poipín óipiam; tír idirthurais do lastais cóicín

Cúnamh: Tiomantais Poist, Lena n-áirítear Ex-IM (FY70-88), $ 869,000,000; Iarthair
(Neamh-SAM) Tíortha, ODA agus Tiomantais déthaobhacha OOF (1970-1987), $ 7700000000

Airgeadra: Quetzal (iolra quetzales); 1 Quetzal (Q) = 100 cent

Rátaí malairte: quetzales Saormhargadh (Q) in aghaidh an US $ 1-3.3913
(Eanáir 1990), 2.8261 (1989), 2.6196 (1988) 2.500 (1987) 1.875 (1986)
1,000 (1985); ráta deara-dubh-mhargaidh 2800 (Bealtaine 1989)

Bhliain fioscach: bliain féilire

Cumarsáid
Railroads: 870 km 0.914-m leithead singletrack; 780 km rialtais
úinéireacht, 90 km faoi úinéireacht phríobháideach

Mórbhealaí: 26.429 km iomlán; 2.868 km pábháilte, 11.421 km gairbhéal, agus 12.140
neamhfheabhsaithe

Uiscebhealaí intíre: 260 km bhliain inseolta ar feadh na; Breise 730 km
inseolta Le linn an tséasúir ard-uisce

Píblínte: amhola, 275 km

Calafoirt: Puerto Barrios, Puerto Quetzal, Santo Tomas de Castilla

Mara ceannaíochta: 1 long lasta (1,000 GRT nó os a chionn) san iomlán
4129 GRT / 6450 DWT

Aer sibhialta: 10 aerárthaí iompair móra

Aerfoirt: 451 iomlán, 391 inúsáidte; 11 le rúidbhealaí buan-dromchla;
aon cheann le rúidbhealaí níos mó ná 3,659 m; 3 le rúidbhealaí 2.440-3.659 m; 19 le
Rúidbhealaí 1.220-2.439 m

Teileachumarsáid: líonra cothrom nua-aimseartha dírithe i Guatamala
× ¥ • cityâ; 97.670 teileafóin; stáisiún-91 AM, aon FM, 25 teilifíse, 15 shortwave;
nasc isteach Lárchóras MICREATHONNACH Mheiriceá; 1 An tAigéan Atlantach
Stáisiún domhain Intelsat

Fórsaí cosanta
Brainsí: Arm, Cabhlach, Air Force

Daonchumhachta Míleata: fireannaigh 15-49, 2,028,875; 1,327,374 oiriúnach don míleata
seirbhíse; Aois míleata 107.251 bhaint (18) go bliantúil

Caiteachas cosanta: 1% de OTI, nó $ 115,000,000 (1990 est.)
.On
Geansaí
(Spleáchas coróin na Breataine)
Tíreolaíocht
Achar iomlán: 194 km2; achar talún: 194 km2; Áirítear Alderney, Guernsey,
Herm, Sark, agus someother hoileáin bheaga

Réimse Comparáideach: beagán níos mó ná Washington, DC

Teorainneacha Talún: none

Chósta: 50 km

Éilimh muirí:

Scairbh ilchríochach: 200 méadar nó chun doimhneacht saothrú;

Crios iascaireachta Eisiach: 200 nm;

Farraige Críche: 3 nm

Aeráide: mheasartha le Winters éadrom agus samhraí fionnuar; Thart ar 50% de
Tá laethanta Clear

Tír-raon: den chuid is mó ar leibhéal le cnoic ísle in iardheisceart

Acmhainní Nádúrtha: cropland

Úsáid talún: NA% thalamh arúil; NA% bharra buana; NA% móinéir agus féarach;
NA% foraoise agus coillearnaí; NA% eile; Thart ar 50% saothraithe

Comhshaol: mór, cuan domhainmhara ag Naomh Peter Port

Tabhair faoi deara: 52 km ó thuaidh-thiar na Fraince

PeopleSoft
Daonra: 57.227 (Iúil 1990), ráta fáis 0.7% (1990)

Ráta breithe: 12 breitheanna / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Ráta báis: 11 bás / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Ráta Glan imirce: 6 imircigh / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Ráta mortlaíochta naíonán: 6 básanna / 1,000 breitheanna beo (1990)

Ionchas saoil ag breithe: 72 bliain fireann, 78 bliain baineann (1990)

Ráta Iomlán torthúlachta: 1.6 leanaí a rugadh / bean (1990)

Náisiúntacht: ainmfhocal-Channel Oileánach (í); aidiacht-Channel Oileánach

Rannáin Eitneach: Ríocht Aontaithe agus ghinealach Normannach-Fraincis

Creideamh: Anglacánach, Caitliceach Rómhánach, Phreispitéireach, Baiste,
Congregational, Mheitidisteach

Teanga: Béarla, Fraincis; Chanúint Normannach-Fraincis á labhairt sa tír
ceantair

Litearthacht: NA%, ach oideachas uilíoch

Lucht saothair: NA

Saothair Eagraithe: NA

Rialtas
Long-fhoirm-ainm: Báilcheantar Geansaí

Cineál: Breataine Crown Spleáchas

Caipiteal: St. Peter Port

Rannáin Riaracháin: none (spleáchas choróin na Breataine)

Neamhspleáchas: none (spleáchas choróin na Breataine)

Bunreacht: neamhscríofa; páirteach reachtanna, an dlí agus cleachtas páirteach coitianta

Córas dlí: dlí Shasana agus reacht áitiúil; Oighear Dlí agus Cirt Arna riaradh ag
An Chúirt Ríoga

Saoire náisiúnta: Lá Saoirse, 9 Bealtaine (1945)

Brainse Feidhmiúcháin: Monarch na Breataine, Leifteanant Gobharnóir, Báille,
Leas Báille

Brainse reachtaíochta: Stáit Staidear

An brainse Breithiúnach: Cúirt Ríoga

Ceannairí:
Ceann Stáit Banríon ELIZABETH II (ó 6 Feabhra, 1952);

Cheann an Rialtais Leifteanant Gobharnóir Lt Gen Sir Alexander
BOSWELL (ó 1985); Báille Sir Charles FROSSARD (ó 1982)

Páirtithe agus ceannairí polaitiúla: none; gach neamhspleácha

Vótáil chomhchoiteann: Uilíoch ag aois 18

Faighteoir:
Stáit de Staidear-ualach leanúnach NA (in aice a bheidh ar siúl NA);
torthaí-faoin gcéad de vóta NA;
seats- (60 iomlán, 33 tofa), gach neamhspleácha

Communists: none

Ionadaíocht taidhleoireachta: none (spleáchas choróin na Breataine)

Bratach: bán le tras dearg Naomh George (naomh datha Shasana)
A leathnú go dtí an imill na brataí

Geilleagar
Is foinse mhór de ioncam Turasóireacht: Forbhreathnú. Eile eacnamaíoch
Áirítear gníomhaíocht seirbhísí airgeadais, pórú an clú domhanda
Eallach Geansaí, agus trátaí ag fás agus bláthanna le haghaidh onnmhairiú.

OTI: $ NA, per capita $ NA; ráta fáis fíor 9% (1987)

An ráta boilscithe (praghsanna tomhaltóirí): 7% (1988)

Ráta Dífhostaíochta: NA%

Buiséad: ioncam is $ 145.0 milliún; caiteachas $ 117.2 milliún, Lena n-áirítear
Caiteachas caipitil de NA (1985)

Onnmhairí: $ NA;
tráchtearraí-trátaí, bláthanna agus raithneach, piobair milis, eggplant,
glasraí eile;
Comhpháirtithe-UK (Measfar Mar trádáil inmheánach)

Allmhairí: $ NA;
tráchtearraí-gual, gásailín agus ola;
Comhpháirtithe-UK (Measfar Mar trádáil inmheánach)

Fiach seachtracha: $ NA

Tháirgeadh tionsclaíoch: ráta fáis NA%

Leictreachas: 173,000 cumas kW; 525 milliún kWh a tháirgtear,
9.340 kWh in aghaidh an duine (1989)

Tionscail: turasóireacht, baincéireacht

Talmhaíocht: trátaí, bláthanna (tar éis fás is mó i dtithe gloine),
piobair milis, eggplant, glasraí agus torthaí eile; Eallach Geansaí

Cúnamh: none

Airgeadra: Geansaí punt (punt plural);
1 Geansaí (LG) punt = 100 pingin

Rátaí malairte: punt Geansaí (LG) in aghaidh an US $ 1-0.6055 (Eanáir
1990), .6099 (1989), .5614 (1988), .6102 (1987), .6817 (1986);
0.7714 (1985); nótaí an bhfuil punt Geansaí ar par leis an punt na Breataine

Bhliain fioscach: bliain féilire

Cumarsáid
Calafoirt: St. Peter Port, St. Sampson

Aerfort: 1 le rúidbhealach buan-dromchla 1.220-2.439 m (La Villiaze)

Teileachumarsáid: stáisiún-1:00, aon FM, 1 teilifíse; 41.900
teileafóin; 1 cábla fomhuirí

Fórsaí cosanta
Tabhair faoi deara: Is é cosaint an fhreagracht ar an Ríocht Aontaithe
.On
Ghuine
Tíreolaíocht
Achar iomlán: 245.860 km2; Achar Talún: 245.860 km2

Réimse Comparáideach: beagán níos lú ná mar a Oregon

Teorainneacha Talún: 3.399 km iomlán; Guinea Bissau 386 km, Cósta Eabhair
610 km, 563 km Libéir, Mailí 858 km, 330 km tSeineagáil, Siarra Leon, 652 km

Chósta: 320 km

Éilimh muirí:

Breisithe Chrios Eacnamaíochta: 200 nm;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Aeráide: Go ginearálta te agus tais; monsoonal-cineál séasúr na báistí
(Meitheamh go Samhain) le gaotha aniar aneas; séasúr tirim (Nollaig go
Bealtaine) le gaotha harmattan thuaidh

Tír-raon: plain cósta Go ginearálta árasán, cnocach go taobh istigh shléibhtiúla

Acmhainní nádúrtha: Báicsít, méine iarann, diamaint, ór, úráiniam,
hidreachumhacht, iasc

Úsáid talún: 6% thalamh arúil; Negl% bharra buana; 12% móinéir agus
féarach; 42% foraoise agus coillearnaí; 40% eile; Áirítear negl% uiscithe

Comhshaol: te, tirim, Clear harmattan dusty Bealtaine Laghdú infheictheacht Le linn
Blastanais tirim; dífhoraoisiú

PeopleSoft
Daonra: 7,269,240 (Iúil 1990), ráta fáis 2.6% (1990)

Ráta breithe: 47 breitheanna / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Ráta báis: 22 bás / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Ráta Glan imirce: 0 imircigh / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Ráta mortlaíochta naíonán: 147 bás / 1,000 breitheanna beo (1990)

Ionchas saoil ag breithe: 40 bliain fireann, 44 bliain baineann (1990)

Ráta Iomlán torthúlachta: 6.1 leanaí a rugadh / bean (1990)

Náisiúntacht: Guine ainmfhocal (í); aidiacht-Ghuine

Rannáin Eitneach: Fulani, Malinke, Sousou, 15 tribes lú

Creideamh: 85% Moslamach, 5% creidimh dúchasacha, 1.5% Críostaí

Teanga: Fraincis (oifigiúil); gach fine bhfuil a Teanga Féin

Litearthacht: 20% i bhFraincis; 48% i dteangacha áitiúla

Lucht saothair: 2,400,000 (1983); Talmhaíocht 82.0%, 11.0% Tionscal agus
Tráchtála, Seirbhísí 5.4%; 88.112 státseirbhísigh (1987); 52% de dhaonra
-aois oibre (1985)

Labor Eagraithe: beagnach 100% de na saothraithe pá scaoilte cleamhnaithe le
Cónaidhm Náisiúnta na nOibrithe Guine

Rialtas
Long-fhoirm-ainm: Poblacht na Guine

Cineál: Poblacht

Caipiteal: Conakry

Rannáin Riaracháin: 29 réigiún riaracháin (réigiúin
administratives, an réigiún uatha Riarachán); Beyla, Boffa Boke,
Conakry, Dabola, Dalaba, Dinguiraye, Dubreka, Faranah, Forecariah, saor in aisce, Gaoual,
Guéckédou, Kankan, Kérouané, Kindia, Kissidougou, Koundara, Kouroussa, labe,
Macenta, Mailí, Mamou, Nzerekore, Pita, Siguiri, Télimélé, tougue, Yomou

Neamhspleáchas: 2 Deireadh Fómhair, 1958 (as an bhFrainc; roimhe Fraince Ghuine)

Bunreacht: 14 Bealtaine, 1982, ar fionraí tar éis an coup de 3 Aibreán, 1984

Córas dlí: bunaithe ar an gcóras na Fraince dlí sibhialta, dlí customary, agus foraithne;
Cóid Faoi láthair dlíthiúil seo á athbhreithniú; Níl TAR Ghlac ICJ éigeantach
Dlínse

Saoire náisiúnta: Comóradh an Dara Poblacht, 3 Aibreán (1984)

Brainse feidhmiúcháin: uachtarán, Coiste Míleata do Náisiúnta
Aisghabháil (Comité Militaire de redressement Náisiúnta nó CMRN), Comhairle na
Airí (comh-aireachta)

Brainse reachtaíochta: Daon-Tionól Náisiúnta (Assemblée Nationale
Populaire) bhí thuaslagtha Tar éis an 3 Aibreán, 1984 coup

An brainse Breithiúnach: Cúirt Achomhairc (Cour d'Appel)

Ceannairí:
Ceann Stáit agus Cheann an Rialtais-Gen. Lansana Conte (ós rud é
5 Aibreán, 1984)

Páirtithe agus ceannairí polaitiúla: none; Tar éis an 3 Aibreán, 1984
coup cuireadh cosc ​​gach gníomhaíocht pholaitiúil

Suffragette: none

Faighteoir: none

Communists: níl Páirtí Cumannach, cé go bhfuil roinnt sympathizers

Ball de: ACC, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, EIT, IDA,
IDB Banc Forbartha Ioslamach, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, INTERPOL, ITU,
An Abhainn Mano tAontas, an Abhainn Nígir Coimisiún, NAM, OAU, Oifig an Choimisinéara Faisnéise, na Náisiún Aontaithe, UNESCO,
UPU, WHO, WMO

Ionadaíocht taidhleoireachta: Ambasadóir Kekoura Camara; Seansaireachta ag
2112 Leroy Plás NW, Washington DC 20008; Teileafón (202) 483-9420;
Stáit Aontaithe Poist Ambasadóir Samuel E. Lupo; Ambasáid Boulevard ag 2 agus 9 Ascaill,
Conakry (Ríomhphoist Seoladh oighear BP 603, Conakry); Teileafón 44-15-20 trí 24

Bratach: trí bannaí ingearach cothrom de gorm (taobh crochán), buí, agus glas;
Úsáideann an tóir dathanna uile-hAfraice de Aetóip; cosúil leis an bratach Ruanda
Cén An bhfuil litir dubh mór R dírithe sa bhanda buí

Geilleagar
Forbhreathnú: Cé singleton posse go leor Acmhainní Nádúrtha agus nach beag
Poitéinseal d'Fhorbairt Talmhaíochta, tá Ghuine ar cheann de na daoine is boichte
Tíortha sa Domhan. An Earnáil Talmhaíochta Cur Maidir 40%
OTI agus fostaíonn sé níos mó ná 80% den lucht oibre, agus an tionscal
cuntais ar feadh thart ar 25% de OTI. Ghuine seilbh níos mó ná 25% de na
Cúlchistí Domhain Báicsít; Onnmhairí de Báicsít agus alúmana cuntas ar feadh níos mó
ná 80% de na honnmhairithe iomlána i 1986.

OTI: $ 2500000000, per capita $ 350; ráta fáis iarbhír 5.0%
(1988)

Ráta boilscithe (praghsanna tomhaltóirí): 27.0% (1988)

Ráta Dífhostaíochta: NA%

Buiséad: ioncam is $ 357,000,000; caiteachas $ 480,000,000, Lena n-áirítear
Caiteachas caipitil de $ 229,000,000 (1988 est.)

Onnmhairí: $ 553,000,000 (sab, 1988 est.);
tráchtearraí-alúmana, Báicsít, diamaint, caife, pineapples, bananaí,
kernels pailme;
comhpháirtithe-na Stáit Aontaithe 33%, EC 33%, APSS agus Oirthear na hEorpa 20%, Ceanada

Allmhairí: $ 509,000,000 (cal, 1988 est.);
Táirgí tráchtearraí-peitriliam, miotail, innealra, trealamh iompair,
Earraí Bia, teicstílí agus gráin eile;
comhpháirtithe-na Stáit Aontaithe 16%, an Fhrainc, an Bhrasaíl

Fiach seachtracha: 1600000000 $ (Nollaig 1988)

Tháirgeadh tionsclaíoch: ráta fáis NA%

Leictreachas: 113,000 cumas kW; 300 milliún kWh a tháirgtear,
40 kWh in aghaidh an duine (1989)

Tionscail: mianadóireacht Báicsít, alúmana, mianadóireacht Diamond, solas
Déantúsaíocht agus tionscail próiseála talmhaíochta

Talmhaíocht: cuntais do 40% de OTI (áirítear iascaireacht agus foraoiseacht);
Feirmeoireacht den chuid is mó chothaithe; Príomh Táirgí-rís, caife, pineapples, pailme
kernels, casabhaigh, bananaí, prátaí milse, adhmad; beostoic-eallach,
caorach agus gabhar; Nóta Féin-Dóthain i foodgrains

Cúnamh: Tiomantais Poist, Lena n-áirítear Ex-IM (FY70-88), $ 203,000,000; Iarthair
(Neamh-SAM) Tíortha, ODA agus Tiomantais déthaobhacha OOF (1970-1987), $ 882,000,000;
ETOP cúnamh déthaobhach (1979-1989), $ 120,000,000; Tíortha cumannach (1970-1988);
$ 446,000,000

Airgeadra: franc Guine (franc plural);
1 An Ghuine Franc (FG) = 100 centimes

Rátaí malairte: franc Guine (FG) in aghaidh an US $ 1-505.00 (Deireadh Fómhair 1988)
440.00 (Eanáir 1988) 440.00 (1987) 235.63 (1986), 22:47 (1985)

Bhliain fioscach: bliain féilire

Cumarsáid
Railroads: 1.045 km; 806 km 1.000-m leithead, 239 km 1.435-m
thomhas caighdeánach

Mórbhealaí: 30.100 km iomlán; 1.145 km pábháilte, 12.955 gairbhéal km nó laterite
(Cé acu de éigean iad 4.500 km láthair bhóithre uile-aimsire), 16.000 km neamhfheabhsaithe
Earth (1987)

Uiscebhealaí intíre: 1.295 km inseolta ag éadomhain-dréacht ceardaíochta dúchais

Calafoirt: Conakry, Kamsar

Aeir Sibhialta: 2 aerárthach Mór iompair

Aerfoirt: 16 iomlán, 16 inúsáidte; 5 le rúidbhealaí buan-dromchla;
aon cheann le rúidbhealaí níos mó ná 3,659 m; 3 le rúidbhealaí 2.440-3.659 m;
9 le rúidbhealaí 1.220-2.439 m

Teileachumarsáid: Córas cothrom ar línte oscailte-sreang, beag
stáisiún cumarsáide raidió, agus córais nua raidió-Relay; 10,000 teileafóin;
stáisiún-3:00, 1 FM, 1 teilifíse; 12,000 Leagann teilifíse; 125,000 glacadóir raidió;
Stáisiún domhain 1 tAigéan Atlantach Intelsat

Fórsaí cosanta
Branches: Army (ground forces), Navy (acts primarily as a coast guard),
Air Force, paramilitary National Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,657,787; 834,777 fit for military
service

Defense expenditures: 3.1% of GDP (1984)
.pa
Guinea-Bissau
Geography
Total area: 36,120 km2; land area: 28,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of
Connecticut

Land boundaries: 724 km total; Guinea 386, Senegal 338 km

Coastline: 350 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: the International Court of Justice (ICJ) has rendered its
decision on the Guinea-Bissau/Senegal maritime boundary (in favor
of Senegal)–that decision has been rejected by Guinea-Bissau

Climate: tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoon-type rainy
season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December
to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

Terrain: mostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east

Natural resources: unexploited deposits of petroleum, bauxite,
phosphates; fish, timber

Land use: 11% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 43% meadows and
pastures; 38% forest and woodland; 7% other

Environment: hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during
dry season

People
Population: 998,963 (July 1990), growth rate 2.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 19 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 127 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 44 years male, 48 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Guinea-Bissauan(s); adjective–Guinea-Bissauan

Ethnic divisions: about 99% African (30% Balanta, 20% Fula, 14% Manjaca,
13% Mandinga, 7% Papel); less than 1% European and mulatto

Religion: 65% indigenous beliefs, 30% Muslim, 5% Christian

Language: Portuguese (official); Criolo and numerous African languages

Literacy: 34% (1986)

Labor force: 403,000 (est.); 90% agriculture, 5% industry,
services, and commerce, 5% government; 53% of population of working
age (1983)

Organized labor: only one trade union–the National Union of Workers of
Guinea-Bissau (UNTG)

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Guinea-Bissau

Type: republic; highly centralized one-party regime since September 1974

Capital: Bissau

Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regioes, singular–regiao);
Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara,
Tombali

Independence: 24 September 1973 (from Portugal; formerly Portuguese
Guinea)

Constitution: 16 May 1984

Legal system: NA

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 September (1973)

Executive branch: president of the Council of State, vice presidents
of the Council of State, Council of State, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly (Assembleia
Nacional Popular)

Judicial branch: none; there is a Ministry of Justice in the Council
of Ministers

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President of the
Council of State Brig. Gen. Joao Bernardo VIEIRA (assumed power 14
November 1980 and elected President of Council of State on 16 May 1984);
First Vice President Col. Iafai CAMARA (since 7 November 1985); Second
Vice President Vasco CABRAL (since 21 June 1989)

Political parties and leaders: only party–African Party for the
Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC), President
Joao Bernardo Vieira, leader; the party decided to retain the
binational title despite its formal break with Cape Verde

Suffrage: universal at age 15

Elections:
President of Council of State–last held 19 June 1989 (next
to be held 19 June 1994);
results–Brig. Gen. Joao Bernardo Vieira was reelected without
opposition by the National People's Assembly;

National People's Assembly–last held 15 June 1989 (next
to be held 15 June 1994);
results–PAIGC is the only party;
seats–(150 total) PAIGC 150, appointed by Regional Councils;

Regional Councils–last held 1 June 1989 (next to be held 1 June
1994); results–PAIGC is the only party;
seats–(473 total) PAIGC 473, by public plebiscite

Communists: a few Communists, some sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto),
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, IRC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Alfredo Lopes CABRAL; Chancery
(temporary) at the Guinea-Bissauan Permanent Mission to the UN, Suite 604,
211 East 43rd Street, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 661-3977;
US–Ambassador William L. JACOBSEN; Embassy at 17 Avenida Domingos Ramos,
Bissau (mailing address is CP 297, Bissau); telephone Õ245å 212816, 21817,
213674

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical
red band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star centered in the
red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag
of Cape Verde which has the black star raised above the center of the red band
and is framed by two corn stalks and a yellow clam shell

Economy
Overview: Guinea-Bissau ranks among the poorest countries in the world,
with a per capita GDP below $200. Agriculture and fishing are the main economic
activities, with cashew nuts, peanuts, and palm kernels the primary exports.
Exploitation of known mineral deposits is unlikely at present because of a weak
infrastructure and the high cost of development. The government's four-year plan
(1988-91) has targeted agricultural development as the top priority.

GDP: $152 million, per capita $160 (1988); real growth rate
5.6% (1987)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $20 million; expenditures $25 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1987)

Exports: $15 million (fob, 1987);
commodities–cashews, fish, peanuts, palm kernels;
partners–Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Cape Verde, China

Imports: $49 million (fob, 1987);
commodities–capital equipment, consumer goods, semiprocessed goods,
foods, petroleum;
partners–Portugal, USSR, EC countries, other Europe, Senegal, US

External debt: $465 million (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate – 1.7% (1986 est.)

Electricity: 22,000 kW capacity; 28 million kWh produced,
30 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: agricultural processing, beer, soft drinks

Agriculture: accounts for over 50% of GDP, nearly 100% of exports,
and 80% of employment; rice is the staple food; other crops include
corn, beans, cassava, cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, and cotton; not
self-sufficient in food; fishing and forestry potential not fully
exploited

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $46 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $519 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $41 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$68 million

Currency: Guinea-Bissauan peso (plural–pesos);
1 Guinea-Bissauan peso (PG) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Guinea-Bissauan pesos (PG) per US$1–650 pesos
(December 1989), NA (1988), 851.65 (1987), 238.98 (1986), 173.61 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 3,218 km; 2,698 km bituminous, remainder earth

Inland waterways: scattered stretches are important to coastal commerce

Ports: Bissau

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 37 total, 18 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: poor system of radio relay, open-wire lines,
and radiocommunications; 3,000 telephones; stations–1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP); Army, Navy, and Air
Force are separate components

Military manpower: males 15-49, 215,552; 122,824 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 3.2% of GDP (1987)
.pa
Guyana
Geography
Total area: 214,970 km2; land area: 196,850 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Idaho

Land boundaries: 2,462 km total; Brazil 1,119 km, Suriname 600 km,
Venezuela 743 km

Coastline: 459 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: outer edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Essequibo area claimed by Venezuela; Suriname claims area
between New (Upper Courantyne) and Courantyne/Kutari Rivers (all headwaters
of the Courantyne)

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds;
two rainy seasons (May to mid-August, mid-November to mid-January)

Terrain: mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber,
shrimp, fish

Land use: 3% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 6% meadows and
pastures; 83% forest and woodland; 8% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: flash floods a constant threat during rainy seasons;
water pollution

People
Population: 764,649 (July 1990), growth rate – 0.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 19 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Mórbhealaí: 8.950 km iomlán; 1.700 km pábháilte, otherewise 5.000 km feabhsaithe,
2.250 km domhain neamhfheabhsaithe

Uiscebhealaí intíre: 465 km inseolta ag árthaí beaga

Calafoirt: Puerto Castilla, Puerto Cortés, San Lorenzo

Mara ceannaíochta: 149 long (1,000 GRT nó os a chionn) san iomlán 438.495
GRT / 660.990 DWT; Áirítear 2 phaisinéirí-lasta, lasta 87, 12 cuisnithe
lasta, coimeádán 9,-rolla ar / lasta 1 rolladh as, 17 peitriliam, olaí, agus
Bealaidh (POL) tancaer, dhá gás leachtaithe, tancaer speisialaithe 1, 1 feithicil
Iompróir, 17 mórchóir; nótaí bratach cláraitheachta áise

Aeir Sibhialta: 9 aerárthaí Mór iompair

Aerfoirt: 180 iomlán, 140 inúsáidte; 8 le rúidbhealaí buan-dromchla;
aon cheann le rúidbhealaí níos mó ná 3,659 m; 4 le rúidbhealaí 2.440-3.659 m; 12 le
Rúidbhealaí 1.220-2.439 m

Teileachumarsáid: feabhsaithe, ach fós neamhleor; Ceangal isteach
Córas MICREATHONNACH Mheiriceá Láir; 35.100 teileafóin; -station 176 AM, gan aon FM,
28 TV 7 shortwave; Stáisiún domhain 2 tAigéan Atlantach Intelsat

Fórsaí cosanta
Brainsí: Fórsaí Armtha, Fórsaí Cabhlaigh, Air Force

Daonchumhachta Míleata: fireannaigh 15-49, 1,222,858; 727.851 oiriúnach don míleata
seirbhíse; Aois míleata 61.493 bhaint (18) go bliantúil

Caiteachas cosanta: 1.9% de OTI, nó $ 82,500,000 (1990 est.)
.On
Hong Cong
(Colony ar an Ríocht Aontaithe)
Tíreolaíocht
Achar iomlán: 1,040 km2; achar talún: 990 km2

Réimse Comparáideach: beagán níos lú ná sé huaire an méid de Washington, DC

Teorainn Talún: 30 km leis an tSín

Chósta: 733 km

Éilimh muirí:

Scairbh ilchríochach: 200 méadar nó chun doimhneacht saothrú;

Crios Iascaireacht Eisiach: 3 nm;

Farraige Críche: 3 nm

Díospóidí: sceidealta le Bí i Réigiún Riaracháin Speisialta na Síne
I 1997

Aeráide: monsoon trópaiceach; fionnuar agus tais sa gheimhreadh, te agus na coise tinne ó
earrach trí tsamhraidh, te agus grianmhar i titim

Tír-raon: cnocach go shléibhtiúla le fánaí géara; Ísealchríocha i dtuaisceart

Acmhainní Nádúrtha: cuain domhainmhara gan íoc, feldspar

Úsáid talún: 7% thalamh arúil; 1% bharra buana; 1% móinéir agus féarach;
12% foraoise agus coillearnaí; 79% eile; Áirítear 3% uiscithe

Comhshaol: Níos mó ná 200 hoileáin; typhoons ó am go chéile

PeopleSoft
Daonra: 5,759,990 (Iúil 1990), ráta fáis 1.0% (1990)

Ráta breithe: 13 breitheanna / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Ráta báis: 5 bás / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Ráta Glan imirce: 2 imircigh / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Ráta mortlaíochta naíonán: 6 básanna / 1,000 breitheanna beo (1990)

Ionchas saoil ag breithe: 76 bliain fireann, 82 bliain baineann (1990)

Ráta Iomlán torthúlachta: 1.4 leanaí a rugadh / bean (1990)

Náisiúntacht: aidiacht Hong Cong

Roinn Eitneach: 98% Sínis, 2% eile

Smoke 90% meascán eclectic de reiligiún áitiúil, 10% Críostaí

Teanga: Sínis (Cantainis), Béarla

Litearthacht: 75%

Lucht saothair: 2,640,000; 35.8% Déantúsaíocht; 22.7% Mórdhíol agus Miondíol
trádála, bialanna agus óstáin, seirbhísí 17.1%, 7.5% tógála, 8.4% iompair
agus Cumarsáid, maoiniú 6.1%, árachas, agus eastát réadach, (1986)

Labor Eagraithe: 15% den lucht saothair (1986)

Rialtas
Long-fhoirm ainm: none; ghiorraithe HK

Cineál: Colony ar an Ríocht Aontaithe; sceidealta ar ais go dtí an tSín sa bhliain 1997

Caipiteal: Victoria

Rannáin Riaracháin: none (coilíneacht na Ríochta Aontaithe)

Neamhspleáchas: none (coilíneacht na Ríochta Aontaithe); Shínigh an Ríocht Aontaithe ar chomhaontú
leis an tSín ar an 19 Nollaig 1984 chun filleadh ar Hong Cong go dtí an tSín an 1 Iúil 1997;
sa dearbhú comhpháirteach, an tSín geallúintí a urramú Hong Cong ann cheana
Córais Sóisialta agus Eacnamaíochta agus stíl bheatha ar feadh 50 Bliain Tar éis Idirbhliain

Bunreacht: neamhscríofa; páirteach reachtanna, an dlí agus cleachtas páirteach coitianta

Córas dlí: bunaithe ar an dlí coiteann Béarla

Saoire náisiúnta: Lá Saoirse, 29 Lúnasa (1945)

Brainse Feidhmiúcháin: Monarch na Breataine, gobharnóir, rúnaí príomhfheidhmeannach an
Ard-Chomhairle

Brainse reachtaíochta: Comhairle Reachtaíochta

An brainse Breithiúnach: An Chúirt Uachtarach

Ceannairí:
Ceann Stáit Banríon ELIZABETH II (ó 6 Feabhra, 1952);

Cheann an Rialtais-Ghobharnóir Sir David Clive Wilson (ó 9 Aibreán, 1987);
Príomh-Rúnaí Sir David Robert Ford (ó NA Feabhra 1987)

Páirtithe Polaitíochta: none

Vótáil: teoranta do thart ar 71,000 daoine gairmiúla ar choláiste toghcháin agus
Dáilcheantair Feidhme

Faighteoir:
Comhairle Reachtaíochta indíreach toghcháin-ualach soladach 26 Meán Fómhair, 1985
(Ar aghaidh le bheith ar siúl i mí Mheán Fómhair 1991)
seats- (58 iomlán, 26 tofa, 32 ceaptha)

Communists: 5,000 (est.) Cadres cleamhnaithe le Páirtí Cumannach na Síne

Grúpaí polaitiúla nó brú Eile: Cónaidhm na gCeardchumann (Cumannach
Rialaithe), Hong Cong agus Kowloon Ceirdeanna Aontas na Comhairle (Náisiúnach Sínis
chun tosaigh ar), an tArd-Hong Cong Cumann Lucht Tráchtála, an Cumann Ginearálta na Síne
Commerce (Cumannach rialú), Cónaidhm Thionscail Hong Cong, Sínis
Cumann na Hong Cong, Hong Cong Gairmiúla Múinteoirí monaróirí
Aontais, agus roinnt grúpaí pro-daonlathas beag.

Ball de: ADB, ESCAP (bhall comhlach), CGTT, IMO, INTERPOL, an Il-snáithín
Socrú, WMO

Ionadaíocht taidhleoireachta: mar choilíneacht na Breataine, na Leasanna
Hong Cong sna Stáit Aontaithe Tá ionadaíocht ag an Ríocht Aontaithe;
Stáit Aontaithe Poist Chonsal Donald M. ANDERSON; Chonsalacht Ginearálta ag
26 Garden Road, Hong Kong (mailing address is Box 30, Hong Kong, or
FPO San Francisco 96659-0002); telephone Õ852å (5) 239011

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with
the Hong Kong coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the
flag; the coat of arms contains a shield (bearing two junks below a
crown) held by a lion (representing the UK) and a dragon (representing China)
with another lion above the shield and a banner bearing the words
HONG KONG below the shield

Economy
Overview: Hong Kong has a free-market economy and is autonomous in
financial affairs. Natural resources are limited and food and raw materials must
be imported. Manufacturing is the backbone of the economy, accounting
for more than 20% of GDP, employing 36% of the labor force, and exporting about
90% of output. Real GDP growth averaged a remakable 8% in 1987-88, then
slowed to a respectable 3% in 1989. Unemployment, which has been declining since
the mid-1980s, is now less than 2%. A shortage of labor continues to put upward
pressure on prices and the cost of living. Short-term prospects remain
solid so long as major trading partners continue to be prosperous. The
crackdown in China in 1989 casts a long shadow over the longer term
economic outlook.

GDP: $57 billion, per capita $10,000; real growth rate 3% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 1.6% (1988)

Budget: $6.9 billion (FY89)

Exports: $63.2 billion (fob, 1988), including reexports of
$22.9 billion;
commodities–clothing, textile yarn and fabric, footwear, electrical
appliances, watches and clocks, toys;
partners–US 31%, China 14%, FRG 8%, UK 6%, Japan 5%

Imports: $63.9 billion (cif, 1988);
commodities–foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials,
semimanufactures, petroleum;
partners–China 31%, Japan 20%, Taiwan 9%, US 8%

External debt: $9.6 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.0% (1988)

Electricity: 7,800,000 kW capacity; 23,000 million kWh produced,
4,030 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys,
watches, clocks

Agriculture: minor role in the economy; rice, vegetables, dairy products;
less than 20% self-sufficient; shortages of rice, wheat, water

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $141.2 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
$899.8 million

Currency: Hong Kong dollar (plural–dollars);
1 Hong Kong dollar (HK$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Hong Kong dollars (HK$) per US$–7.800 (March 1989),
7.810 (1988), 7.760 (1987), 7.795 (1986), 7.811 (1985); note–linked to the
US dollar at the rate of about 7.8 HK$ per 1 US$ since 1985

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Railroads: 35 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, government owned

Highways: 1,100 km total; 794 km paved, 306 km gravel, crushed stone,
or earth

Ports: Hong Kong

Merchant marine: 134 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 4,391,102
GRT/7,430,337 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger, 11 cargo,
10 refrigerated cargo, 13 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 10 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 9 combination ore/oil,
7 liquefied gas, 69 bulk; note–a flag of convenience registry; ships registered
in Hong Kong fly the UK flag and an estimated 500 Hong Kong-owned ships are
registered elsewhere

Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total; 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modern facilities provide excellent domestic and
international services; 2,300,000 telephones; microwave transmission links and
extensive optical fiber transmission network; stations–6 AM, 6 FM, 4
TV; 1 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) relay station and 1 British
Forces Broadcasting Service relay station; 2,500,000 radio receivers;
1,312,000 TV sets (1,224,000 color TV sets);
satellite earth stations–1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 2 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT; coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China; links to 5 international
submarine cables providing access to ASEAN member nations, Japan,
Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

Defense Forces
Branches: Headquarters of British Forces, Gurkha Brigade, Royal Navy,
Royal Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Police
Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,703,890; 1,320,914 fit for military
service; 46,440 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 0.5% of GDP, or $300 million (1989 est.);
this represents one-fourth of the total cost of defending the colony,
the remainder being paid by the UK

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
.pa
Howland Island
(Críoch de na Stáit Aontaithe)
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 1.6 km2; land area: 1.6 km2

Comparative area: about 2.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Teorainneacha Talún: none

Coastline: 6.4 km

Éilimh muirí:

Crios tadhlach: 12 nm;

Scairbh ilchríochach: 200 m;

Breisithe Chrios Eacnamaíochta: 200 nm;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by
a narrow fringing reef; depressed central area

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 5% forest and woodland; 95% other

Environment: almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines, and
low-growing shrubs; small area of trees in the center; lacks fresh water;
primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds,
and marine wildlife; feral cats

Note: remote location 2,575 km southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific
Ocean, just north of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and Australia

People
Population: uninhabited

Note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and naval
attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World War II, but
abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit only and
generally restricted to scientists and educators

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and
Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National
Wildlife Refuge System

Economy
Overview: no economic activity

Communications
Airports: airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling stop on
the round-the-world flight of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan–they left Lae,
New Guinea, for Howland Island, but were never seen again; the airstrip is no
longer serviceable

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along the
middle of the west coast

Note: Earhart Light is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast
that was partially destroyed during World War II, but has since been rebuilt in
memory of famed aviatrix Amelia Earhart

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually
by the US Coast Guard
.pa
Hungary
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 93,030 km2; land area: 92,340 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: 2,251 km total; Austria 366 km, Czechoslovakia 676
km, Romania 443 km, USSR 135 km, Yugoslavia 631 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Disputes: Transylvania question with Romania; Nagymaros Dam
dispute with Czechoslovakia

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils

Land use: 54% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 14% meadows and pastures;
18% foraoise agus coillearnaí; 11% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: levees are common along many streams, but flooding occurs
almost every year

Note: landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes
between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between USSR and
Mediterranean basin

People
Population: 10,568,686 (July 1990), growth rate – 0.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 15 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 75 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Hungarian(s); adjective–Hungarian

Ethnic divisions: 96.6% Hungarian, 1.6% German, 1.1% Slovak, 0.3%
Southern Slav, 0.2% Romanian

Religion: 67.5% Roman Catholic, 20.0% Calvinist, 5.0% Lutheran, 7.5%
atheist and other

Language: 98.2% Hungarian, 1.8% other

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 4,860,000; 43.2% services, trade, government, and other,
30.9% industry, 18.8% agriculture, 7.1% construction (1988)

Organized labor: 96.5% of labor force; Central Council of Hungarian Trade
Unions (SZOT) includes 19 affiliated unions, all controlled by the government;
independent unions legal; may be as many as 12 small independent unions
in operation

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Hungary

Type: republic

Capital: Budapest

Administrative divisions: 19 counties (megyek, singular–megye) and
1 capital city* (fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes,
Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest*, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Sopron,
Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Komarom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar,
Szolnok, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala

Independence: 1001, unification by King Stephen I

Constitution: 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April
1972 and 18 October 1989

Legal system: based on Communist legal theory, with both civil law system
(civil code of 1960) and common law elements; Supreme Court renders decisions of
principle that sometimes have the effect of declaring legislative acts
unconstitutional; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Liberation, 4 April (1945)

Executive branch: president, premier, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Orszaggyules)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President-designate Arpad GONCZ (since
2 May 1990);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Jozsef ANTALL
(since 23 May 1990)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Forum, Jozsef Antall,
chairman; Free Democrats, Janos Kis, chairman; Independent Smallholders,
Istvan Prepeliczay, president; Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP), Rezso
Nyers, chairman; Young Democrats; Christian Democrats, Sandor Keresztes,
president; note–the Hungarian Socialist (Communist) Workers' Party
(MSZMP) renounced Communism and became the Hungarian Socialist Party
(MSP) in October 1989

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
National Assembly–last held on 25 March 1990 (first round, with
the second round held 8 April 1990);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(394 total) Democratic Forum 165, Free Democrats 92,
Independent Smallholders 43, Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP) 33,
Young Democrats 21, Christian Democrats 21, independent candidates
or jointly sponsored candidates 19; an additional 8 seats
will be given to representatives of minority nationalities

Communists: fewer than 100,000 (December 1989)

Member of: CCC, CEMA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, IBEC, ICAC, ICAO,
ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dr. Peter VARKONYI;
Chancery at 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 362-6730;
there is a Hungarian Consulate General in New York;
US–Ambassador-designate Charles THOMAS; Embassy at V. Szabadsag
Ter 12, Budapest (mailing address is APO New York 09213); telephone Õ36å
(1) 126-450

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

Economy
Overview: Hungary's postwar Communist government spurred the movement
from a predominantly agricultural to an industrialized economy. The share
of the labor force in agriculture dropped from over 50% in 1950 to under
20% in 1989. Agriculture nevertheless remains an important sector,
providing sizable export earnings and meeting domestic food needs.
Industry accounts for about 40% of GNP and 30% of employment. Nearly
three-fourths of foreign trade is with the USSR and Eastern Europe. Low
rates of growth reflect the inability of the Soviet-style economy to
modernize capital plant and motivate workers. GNP grew about 1% in 1988
and declined by 1% in 1989. Since 1985 external debt has
more than doubled, to nearly $20 billion. In recent years Hungary has
moved further than any other East European country in experimenting with
decentralized and market-oriented enterprises. These experiments have
failed to jump-start the economy because of: limitations on funds for
privatization; continued subsidization of insolvent state enterprises;
and the leadership's reluctance to implement sweeping market reforms
that would cause additional social dislocations in the short term.

GNP: $64.6 billion, per capita $6,108; real growth rate – 1.3%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 0.4% (1989)

Budget: revenues $14.0 billion; expenditures $14.2 billion, including
capital expenditures of $944 million (1988)

Exports: $19.1 billion (fob 1988);
commodities–capital goods 36%, foods 24%, consumer goods 18%, fuels
and minerals 11%, other 11%;
partners USSR 48%, Eastern Europe 25%, developed countries 16%,
less developed countries 8% (1987)

Imports: $18.3 billion (cif, 1988);
commodities–machinery and transport 28%, fuels 20%, chemical
products 14%, manufactured consumer goods 16%, agriculture 6%, other
16%;
partners–USSR 43%, Eastern Europe 28%, less developed countries 23%,
US 3% (1987)

External debt: $19.6 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.6% (1988)

Electricity: 7,250,000 kW capacity; 30,300 million kWh produced,
2,870 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining, metallurgy, engineering industries, processed foods,
textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals)

Agriculture: including forestry, accounts for about 15% of GNP and 19% of
employment; highly diversified crop-livestock farming; principal
crops–wheat, corn, sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets;
livestock–hogs, cattle, poultry, dairy products; self-sufficient in
food output

Aid: donor–$1.8 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed
countries (1962-88)

Currency: forint (plural–forints); 1 forint (Ft) = 100 filler

Exchange rates: forints (Ft) per US$1–62.5 (January 1990), 59.2 (1989),
50.413 (1988), 46.971 (1987), 45.832 (1986), 50.119 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 7,770 km total; 7,513 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
222 km narrow gauge (mostly 0.760-meter), 35 km 1.524-meter broad gauge; 1,138
km double track, 2,088 km electrified; all government owned (1987)

Highways: 130,000 km total; 29,701 km national highway
system–26,727 km asphalt and bitumen, 146 km concrete, 55 km stone and
road brick, 2,345 km macadam, 428 km unpaved; 58,495 km country roads
(66% unpaved), and 41,804 km (est.) other roads (70% unpaved) (1987)

Inland waterways: 1,622 km (1986)

Pipelines: crude oil, 1,204 km; refined products, 600 km; natural gas,
3,800 km (1986)

Ports: Budapest and Dunaujvaros are river ports on the Danube; maritime
outlets are Rostock (GDR), Gdansk (Poland), Gdynia (Poland), Szczecin (Poland),
Galati (Romania), and Braila (Romania)

Merchant marine: 16 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 77,141
GRT/103,189 DWT

Civil air: 22 major transport aircraft

Airports: 90 total, 90 usable; 20 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations–13 AM, 11 FM, 21 TV; 8 Soviet TV relays;
3,500,000 TV sets; 5,500,000 receiver sets; at least 1 satellite earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Hungarian People's Army, Frontier Guard, Air and Air Defense
Command

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,645,016; 2,112,651 fit for military
service; 86,481 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 43.7 billion forints, NA% of total budget (1989);
note–conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the official
administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results
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Iceland
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 103,000 km2; land area: 100,250 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Kentucky

Teorainneacha Talún: none

Coastline: 4,988 km

Éilimh muirí:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Breisithe Chrios Eacnamaíochta: 200 nm;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Disputes: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Ireland,
and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall
area)

Climate: temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy
winters; damp, cool summers

Terrain: mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks,
icefields; coast deeply indented by bays and fiords

Natural resources: fish, hydroelectric and geothermal power,
diatomite

Land use: NEGL% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 23% meadows and
pastures; 1% forest and woodland; 76% other

Environment: subject to earthquakes and volcanic activity

Note: strategic location between Greenland and Europe;
westernmost European country

People
Population: 257,023 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Icelander(s); adjective–Icelandic

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norwegians and
Celts

Religion: 95% Evangelical Lutheran, 3% other Protestant and Roman
Catholic, 2% no affiliation

Language: Icelandic

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: 134,429; 55.4% commerce, finance, and services, 14.3% other
manufacturing, 5.8% agriculture, 7.9% fish processing, 5.0% fishing (1986)

Organized labor: 60% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Iceland

Type: republic

Capital: Reykjavik

Administrative divisions: 23 counties (syslar, singular–sysla) and
14 independent towns* (kaupstadar, singular–kaupstadur); Akranes*, Akureyri*,
Arnessysla, Austur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Austur-Hunavatnssysla,
Austur-Skaftafellssysla, Borgarfjardharsysla, Dalasysla,
Eyjafjardharsysla, Gullbringusysla, Hafnarfjordhur*, Husavik*,
Isafjordhur*, Keflavik*, Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*, Myrasysla,
Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasysla,
Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla,
Reykjavik*, Saudharkrokur*, Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*,
Skagafjardharsysla, Snaefellsnes-og Hanppadalssysla, Strandasysla,
Sudhur-Mulasysla, Sudhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Vestmannaeyjar*,
Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Vestur-Hunavatnssysla,
Vestur-Isafjardharsysla, Vestur-Skaftafellssysla

Independence: 17 June 1944 (from Denmark)

Constitution: 16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944

Legal system: civil law system based on Danish law; does not accept
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Establishment of the Republic,
17 June (1944)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Althing) with an Upper House
(Efri Deild) and a Lower House (Nedri Deild)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Haestirettur)

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR (since 1 August 1980);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Steingrimur HERMANNSSON (since 28
September 1988)

Political parties and leaders: Independence (conservative), Thorsteinn
Palsson; Progressive, Steingrimur Hermannsson; Social Democratic, Jon
Baldvin Hannibalsson; People's Alliance (left socialist), Olafur Ragnar
Grimsson; Citizens Party (conservative nationalist), Julius Solnes;
Women's List

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Elections:
President–last held on 29 June 1980 (next scheduled for June 1992);
results–there were no elections in 1984 and 1988 as President Vigdis
Finnbogadottir was unopposed;

Parliament–last held on 25 April 1987 (next to be held by
25 April 1991);
results–Independence 27.2%, Progressive 18.9%, Social Democratic 15.2%,
People's Alliance 13.4%, Citizens Party 10.9%, Womens List 10.1%, other 4.3%;

seats–(63 total) Independence 18, Progressive 13, Social Democratic 10,
People's Alliance 8, Citizens Party 7, Womens List 6, Regional Equality
Platform 1

Communists: less than 100 (est.), some of whom participate in the
People's Alliance

Member of: CCC, Council of Europe, EC (free trade agreement pending
resolution of fishing limits issue), EFTA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICES,
IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, IWC–International
Whaling Commission, NATO, Nordic Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ingvi S. INGVARSSON; Chancery at
2022 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-6653
through 6655; there is an Icelandic Consulate General in New York;
US–Ambassador Charles E. COBB; Embassy at Laufasvegur 21, Reykjavik
(mailing address is FPO New York 09571-0001); telephone Õ354å (1) 29100

Flag: blue with a red cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy
Overview: Iceland's prosperous Scandinavian-type economy is basically
capitalistic, but with extensive welfare measures, low unemployment, and
comparatively even distribution of income. The economy is heavily dependent on
the fishing industry, which provides nearly 75% of export earnings. In the
absence of other natural resources, Iceland's economy is vulnerable to changing
world fish prices. National output declined for the second consecutive year in
1989, and two of the largest fish farms filed for bankruptcy. Other economic
activities include livestock raising and aluminum smelting. A fall in the fish
catch is expected for 1990, resulting in a continuation of the recession.

GDP: $4.0 billion, per capita $16,200; real growth rate – 1.8% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 17.4% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1.3% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $1.5 billion; expenditures $1.7 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA million (1988)

Exports: $1.4 billion (fob, 1988);
commodities–fish and fish products, animal products, aluminum,
diatomite;
partners–EC 58.9% (UK 23.3%, FRG 10.3%), US 13.6%,
USSR 3.6%

Imports: $1.6 billion (cif, 1988);
commodities–machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum,
foodstuffs, textiles;
partners–EC 58% (FRG 16%, Denmark 10.4%, UK 9.2%), US 8.5%,
USSR 3.9%

External debt: $1.8 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.7% (1987 est.)

Electricity: 1,063,000 kW capacity; 5,165 million kWh produced,
20,780 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fish processing, aluminum smelting, ferro-silicon production,
hydropower

Agriculture: accounts for about 25% of GDP (including fishing); fishing is
most important economic activity, contributing nearly 75% to export earnings;
principal crops–potatoes and turnips; livestock–cattle, sheep; self-sufficient
in crops; fish catch of about 1.6 million metric tons in 1987

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $19.1 million

Currency: krona (plural–kronur);
1 Icelandic krona (IKr) = 100 aurar

Exchange rates: Icelandic kronur (IKr) per US$1–60.751 (January 1990),
57.042 (1989), 43.014 (1988), 38.677 (1987), 41.104 (1986), 41.508 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 12,343 km total; 166 km bitumen and concrete; 1,284 km
bituminous treated and gravel; 10,893 km earth

Ports: Reykjavik, Akureyri, Hafnarfjordhur, Keflavik, Seydhisfjordhur,
Siglufjordur, Vestmannaeyjar; numerous minor ports

Merchant marine: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 62,867
GRT/87,610 DWT; includes 9 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container,
2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
1 chemical tanker, 2 bulk

Civil air: 20 major transport aircraft

Airports: 99 total, 92 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
14 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate domestic service, wire and radio
communication system; 135,000 telephones; stations–10 AM, 17 (43 relays) FM,
14 (132 relays) TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Police, Coast Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 68,688; 61,553 fit for military service;
no conscription or compulsory military service

Defense expenditures: none
.pa
India
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 3,287,590 km2; land area: 2,973,190 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than one-third the size of the US

Land boundaries: 14,103 km total; Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km,
Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km

Coastline: 7,000 km

Éilimh muirí:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Breisithe Chrios Eacnamaíochta: 200 nm;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Disputes: boundaries with Bangladesh, China, and Pakistan; water
sharing problems with downstream riparians, Bangladesh over the Ganges
and Pakistan over the Indus

Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling
plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore,
manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds,
crude oil, limestone

Land use: 55% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 4% meadows and pastures;
23% forest and woodland; 17% other; includes 13% irrigated

Environment: droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common;
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; air and water pollution;
desertification

Note: dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important
Indian Ocean trade routes

People
Population: 849,746,001 (July 1990), growth rate 2.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 30 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 89 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 57 years male, 59 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Indian(s); adjective–Indian

Ethnic divisions: 72% Indo-Aryan, 25% Dravidian, 3% Mongoloid and other

Religion: 82.6% Hindu, 11.4% Muslim, 2.4% Christian, 2.0% Sikh, 0.7%
Buddhist, 0.5% Jains, 0.4% other

Language: Hindi, English, and 14 other official languages–Bengali,
Telgu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya,
Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; 24 languages spoken by
a million or more persons each; numerous other languages and dialects,
for the most part mutually unintelligible; Hindi is the national language
and primary tongue of 30% of the people; English enjoys associate status
but is the most important language for national, political, and
commercial communication; Hindustani, a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu, is
spoken widely throughout northern India

Literacy: 36%

Labor force: 284,400,000; 67% agriculture (FY85)

Organized labor: less than 5% of the labor force

Government
Long-form name: Republic of India

Type: federal republic

Capital: New Delhi

Administrative divisions: 24 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and
Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar,
Chandigarh*, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Delhi*, Goa and Daman and Diu*,
Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir,
Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur,
Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab,
Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal;
note–Goa may have become a state with Daman and Diu remaining a union
territory

Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK)

Constitution: 26 January 1950

Legal system: based on English common law; limited judicial review of
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic,
26 January (1950)

Executive branch: president, vice president, prime minister,
Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Sansad) consists of an upper
house or Government Assembly (Rajya Sabha) and a lower house or People's
Assembly (Lok Sabha)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Ramaswamy Iyer VENKATARAMAN (since 25 July
1987); Vice President Dr. Shankar Dayal SHARMA (since 3 September 1987);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Vishwanath Pratap SINGH
(since 2 December 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Janata Dal Party, Prime Minister
VP Singh; Congress (I) Party, Rajiv Gandhi; Bharatiya Janata Party,
LK Advani; Communist Party of India (CPI), C. Rajeswara Rao;
Communist Party of India/Marxist (CPI/M), EMS Namboodiripad;
Communist Party of India/Marxist-Leninist (CPI/ML), Satyanarayan Singh;
All-India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (AIADMK), a regional party
in Tamil Nadu, Jayalalitha; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham, M. Karunanidhi;
Akali Dal factions representing Sikh religious community in the Punjab;
Telugu Desam, a regional party in Andhra Pradesh, NT Rama Rao; National
Conference (NC), a regional party in Jammu and Kashmir, Farooq Abdullah;
Asom Gana Parishad, a regional party in Assam, Prafulla Mahanta

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
People's Assembly–last held 22, 24, 26 November
1989 (next to be held by November 1994, subject to postponement);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(544 total), 525 elected–Congress (I) Party
193, Janata Dal Party 141, Bharatiya Janata Party 86, Communist
Party of India (Marxist) 32, independents 18, Communist Party of India
12, AIADMK 11, Akali Dal 6, Shiv Sena 4, RSP 4, Forward Bloc 3, BSP 3,
Telugu Desam 2, Congress (S) Party 1, others 9

Communists: 466,000 members claimed by CPI, 361,000 members claimed by
CPI/M; Communist extremist groups, about 15,000 members

Other political or pressure groups: various separatist groups seeking
greater communal autonomy; numerous senas or militant/chauvinistic
organizations, including Shiv Sena (in Bombay), Anand Marg, and Rashtriya
Swayamsevak Sangh

Member of: ADB, AIOEC, ANRPC, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth,
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU,
IWC–International Wheat Council, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Abid HUSSEIN;
Chancery at 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 939-7000; there are Indian Consulates General in
Chicago, New York, and San Francisco;
US–Ambassador William CLARK; Embassy at Shanti Path, Chanakyapuri
110021, New Delhi; telephone Õ91å (11) 600651; there are US Consulates General
in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with
a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; similar to
the flag of Niger which has a small orange disk centered in the white band

Economy
Overview: India's Malthusian economy is a mixture of traditional
village farming and handicrafts, modern agriculture, old and new branches
of industry, and a multitude of support services. It presents both the
entrepreneurial skills and drives of the capitalist system and
widespread government intervention of the socialist mold. Growth of 4%
to 5% annually in the 1980s has softened the impact of population growth
on unemployment, social tranquility, and the environment. Agricultural output
has continued to expand, reflecting the greater use of modern farming techniques
and improved seed that have helped to make India self-sufficient in food grains
and a net agricultural exporter. However, tens of millions of villagers,
particularly in the south, have not benefited from the green
revolution and live in abject poverty. Industry has benefited from a
liberalization of controls. The growth rate of the service sector has
also been strong.

GNP: $333 billion, per capita $400; real growth rate 5.0% (1989
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $48 billion; expenditures $53 billion, including
capital expenditures of $13.6 billion (1989)

Exports: $17.2 billion (fob, 1989); commodities–tea, coffee,
iron ore, fish products, manufactures;
partners–EC 25%, USSR and Eastern Europe 17%, US 19%, Japan 10%

Imports: $24.7 billion (cif, 1989); commodities–petroleum,
edible oils, textiles, clothing, capital goods; partners–EC 33%,
Middle East 19%, Japan 10%, US 9%, USSR and Eastern Europe 8%

External debt: $48.7 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 8.8% (1989)

Electricity: 59,000,000 kW capacity; 215,000 million kWh produced,
260 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, food processing, steel, machinery, transportation
equipment, cement, jute manufactures, mining, petroleum, power,
chemicals, pharmaceuticals, electronics

Agriculture: accounts for about 33% of GNP and employs 67% of labor force;
self-sufficient in food grains; principal crops–rice, wheat, oilseeds, cotton,
jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; livestock–cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and
poultry; fish catch of about 3 million metric tons ranks India in the world's
top 10 fishing nations

Illicit drugs: licit producer of opium poppy for the
pharmaceutical trade, but some opium is diverted to international drug
markets; major transit country for illicit narcotics produced in
neighboring countries

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $4.2 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-87), $18.6 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $315 million; USSR (1970-88), $10.0 billion;
Eastern Europe (1970-88), $105 million

Currency: Indian rupee (plural–rupees);
1 Indian rupee (Re) = 100 paise

Exchange rates: Indian rupees (Rs) per US$1–16.965 (January 1990),
16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988), 12.962 (1987), 12.611 (1986), 12.369 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Railroads: 61,850 km total (1986); 33,553 km 1.676-meter broad gauge,
24,051 km 1.000-meter gauge, 4,246 km narrow gauge (0.762 meter and
0.610 meter); 12,617 km is double track; 6,500 km is electrified

Highways: 1,633,300 km total (1986); 515,300 km secondary and
1,118,000 km gravel, crushed stone, or earth

Inland waterways: 16,180 km; 3,631 km navigable by large vessels

Pipelines: crude oil, 3,497 km; refined products, 1,703 km; natural gas,
902 km (1989)

Ports: Bombay, Calcutta, Cochin, Kandla, Madras, New Mangalore,
Port Blair (Andaman Islands)

Merchant marine: 296 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,855,842
GRT/9,790,260 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 8 passenger-cargo, 95 cargo,
1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 8 container, 53 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 10 chemical tanker, 9 combination ore/oil,109 bulk, 2 combination bulk

Civil air: 93 major transport aircraft

Airports: 345 total, 292 usable; 202 with permanent-surface runways; 2
with runways over 3,659 m; 57 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 91 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: poor domestic telephone service, international radio
communications adequate; 3,200,000 telephones; stations–170 AM, no FM, 14 TV
(government controlled); domestic satellite system for communications and TV;
3 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; submarine cables to Sri Lanka, Malaysia,
and Pakistan

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Border Security Forces, Coast Guard,
Paramilitary Forces

Military manpower: males 15-49, 227,436,282; 134,169,114 fit for military
service; about 9,403,063 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.6% of GNP, or $8.7 billion (FY90 est.)
.pa
Indian Ocean
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 73,600,000 km2; Arabian Sea, Bass Strait, Bay of Bengal,
Java Sea, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Strait of Malacca, Timor Sea, and other
tributary water bodies

Comparative area: slightly less than eight times the size of the US;
third-largest ocean (after the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but larger
than the Arctic Ocean)

Coastline: 66,526 km

Climate: northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon (June
to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and October/November in
the north Indian Ocean and January/February in the south Indian Ocean

Terrain: surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad, circular
system of currents) in the south Indian Ocean; unique reversal of surface
currents in the north Indian Ocean–low pressure over southwest Asia from hot,
rising, summer air results in the southwest monsoon and southwest-to-northeast
winds and currents, while high pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling,
winter air results in the northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds
and currents; ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and
subdivided by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge,
and Ninety East Ridge; maximum depth is 7,258 meters in the Java Trench

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and
gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules

Environment: endangered marine species include the dugong, seals,
turtles, and whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and
Red Sea

Note: major choke points include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz,
Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok Strait;
ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme south near Antarctica from
May to October

Economy
Overview: The Indian Ocean provides a major transportation highway
for the movement of petroleum products from the Middle East to Europe
and North and South American countries. Fish from the ocean are of growing
economic importance to many of the bordering countries as a source of both food
and exports. Fishing fleets from the USSR, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan also exploit
the Indian Ocean for mostly shrimp and tuna. Large reserves of hydrocarbons are
being tapped in the offshore areas of Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, and Western
Australia. An estimated 40% of the world's offshore oil production comes from
the Indian Ocean. Beach sands rich in heavy minerals and offshore placer
deposits are actively exploited by bordering countries, particularly India,
South Africa, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.

Industries: based on exploitation of natural resources, particularly
marine life, minerals, oil and gas production, fishing, sand and gravel
aggregates, placer deposits

Communications
Ports: Bombay (India), Calcutta (India), Madras (India),
Colombo (Sri Lanka), Durban (South Africa), Fremantle (Australia),
Jakarta (Indonesia), Melbourne (Australia), Richard's Bay (South Africa)

Telecommunications: no submarine cables
.pa
Indonesia
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 1,919,440 km2; land area: 1,826,440 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 2,602 km total; Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea
820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation;

Breisithe Chrios Eacnamaíochta: 200 nm;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Disputes: East Timor question with Portugal

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Natural resources: crude oil, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite,
copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use: 8% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 7% meadows and pastures;
67% forest and woodland; 15% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: archipelago of 13,500 islands (6,000 inhabited); occasional
floods, severe droughts, and tsunamis; deforestation

Note: straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea
lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

People
Population: 190,136,221 (July 1990), growth rate 1.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 75 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 58 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Indonesian(s); adjective–Indonesian

Ethnic divisions: majority of Malay stock comprising 45.0% Javanese, 14.0%
Sundanese, 7.5% Madurese, 7.5% coastal Malays, 26.0% other

Religion: 88% Muslim, 6% Protestant, 3% Roman Catholic, 2% Hindu, 1%
other

Language: Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official); Béarla
and Dutch leading foreign languages; local dialects, the most widely spoken
of which is Javanese

Literacy: 62%

Labor force: 67,000,000; 55% agriculture, 10% manufacturing,
4% construction, 3% transport and communications (1985 est.)

Organized labor: 3,000,000 members (claimed); about 5% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Indonesia

Type: republic

Capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi,
singular–propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa,
singular–daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district**
(daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**,
Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat,
Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku,
Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan,
Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat,
Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*

Independence: 17 August 1945 (from Netherlands; formerly Netherlands
or Dutch East Indies)

Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949
and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives
(Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR); note–the People's Consultative Assembly
(Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly
elected members who meet every five years to elect the president and
vice president and, theoretically, to determine national policy

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Gen. (Ret.)
SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968); Vice President Lt. Gen. (Ret.) SUDHARMONO
(since 11 March 1983)

Political parties and leaders: GOLKAR (quasi-official party based on
functional groups), Lt. Gen. (Ret.) Wahono, general chairman; Indonesia
Democracy Party (PDI–federation of former Nationalist and Christian
Parties), Soeryadi, chairman; Development Unity Party (PPP, federation
of former Islamic parties), Ismail Hasan Metareum, chairman

Suffrage: universal at age 17 and married persons regardless of age

Elections:
House of Representatives–last held on 23 April 1987
(next to be held 23 April 1992);
results–Golkar 73%, UDP 16%, PDI 11%;
seats–(500 total–400 elected, 100 appointed) Golkar 299, UDP 61, PDI 40

Communists: Communist Party (PKI) was officially banned in March 1966;
current strength about 1,000-3,000, with less than 10% engaged in organized
activity; pre-October 1965 hardcore membership about 1.5 million

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, Association of Tin Producing Countries,
CCC, CIPEC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA,
IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdul Rachman RAMLY;
Chancery at 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036;
telephone (202) 775-5200; there are Indonesian Consulates General in Houston,
New York, and Los Angeles, and Consulates in Chicago and San Francisco;
US–Ambassador John C. MONJO; Embassy at Medan Merdeka Selatan 5,
Jakarta (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96356);
telephone Õ62å (21) 360-360; there are US Consulates in Medan and Surabaya

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the
flag of Monaco which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland which is
white (top) and red

Economy
Overview: Indonesia is a mixed economy with many socialist institutions
and central planning but with a recent emphasis on deregulation and private
enterprise. Indonesia has extensive natural wealth but, with a large and
rapidly increasing population, it remains a poor country. GNP growth in 1985-89
averaged about 4%, somewhat short of the 5% rate needed to absorb the 2.3
million workers annually entering the labor force. Agriculture, including
forestry and fishing, is the most important sector, accounting for 21% of GDP
and over 50% of the labor force. The staple crop is rice. Once the world's
largest rice importer, Indonesia is now nearly self-sufficient.
Plantation crops–rubber and palm oil–are being encouraged for both
export and job generation. The diverse natural resources include crude
oil, natural gas, timber, metals, and coal. Of these, the oil sector
dominates the external economy, generating more than 20% of the
government's revenues and 40% of export earnings in 1989.
Japan is Indonesia's most important customer and supplier of aid.

GNP: $80 billion, per capita $430; real growth rate 5.7% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 3.1% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $20.9 billion; expenditures $20.9 billion, including
capital expenditures of $7.5 billion (FY89)

Exports: $21.0 billion (fob, 1989 est.); commodities–petroleum
and liquefied natural gas 40%, timber 15%, textiles 7%, rubber 5%, coffee 3%;
partners–Japan 42%, US 16%, Singapore 9%, EC 11% (1988)

Imports: $13.2 billion (fob, 1989 est.); commodities–machinery
39%, chemical products 19%, manufactured goods 16%;
partners–Japan 26%, EC 19%, US 13%, Singapore 7% (1988)

External debt: $55.0 billion, medium and long-term (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.8% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 11,600,000 kW capacity; 38,000 million kWh produced,
200 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer
production, timber, food, rubber

Agriculture: subsistence food production; small-holder and plantation
production for export; rice, cassava, peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, copra,
other tropical products

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade, but not a major player; government actively eradicating
plantings and prosecuting traffickers

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $4.2 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $19.8 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $213 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$175 million

Currency: Indonesian rupiah (plural–rupiahs);
1 Indonesian rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen (sen no longer used)

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1–1,804.9 (January 1990),
1,770.1 (1989), 1,685.7 (1988), 1,643.8 (1987), 1,282.6 (1986), 1,110.6 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Railroads: 6,964 km total; 6,389 km 1.067-meter gauge, 497 km 0.750-meter
gauge, 78 km 0.600-meter gauge; 211 km double track; 101 km electrified; all
government owned

Highways: 119,500 km total; 11,812 km state, 34,180 km provincial,
and 73,508 km district roads

Inland waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura
820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Pipelines: crude oil, 2,505 km; refined products, 456 km; natural gas,
1,703 km (1989)

Ports: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Ujungpandang,
Semarang, Surabaya

Merchant marine: 313 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,480,912
GRT/2,245,233 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 13 passenger-cargo,
173 cargo, 6 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 vehicle carrier,
77 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker,
2 liquefied gas, 6 specialized tanker, 1 livestock carrier, 24 bulk

Civil air: about 216 commercial transport aircraft

Airports: 468 total, 435 usable; 106 with permanent-surface runways; 1
with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 62 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: interisland microwave system and HF police net;
domestic service fair, international service good; radiobroadcast coverage
good; 763,000 telephones (1986); stations–618 AM, 38 FM, 9 TV; satellite earth
stations–1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT
earth station; and 1 domestic satellite communications system

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 49,283,496; 29,137,291 fit for military
service; 2,098,169 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.1% of GNP (1987)
.pa
Iran
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 1,648,000 km2; land area: 1,636,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: 5,492 km total; Afghanistan 936 km, Iraq 1,458 km,
Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, USSR 1,690 km

Coastline: 3,180 km

Éilimh muirí:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive fishing zone: 50 nm in the Sea of Oman, median-line
boundaries in the Persian Gulf;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Disputes: Iran began formal UN peace negotiations with Iraq in August
1988 to end the war that began on 22 September 1980–troop withdrawal,
freedom of navigation, sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway and
prisoner-of-war exchange are the major issues for negotiation; Kurdish
question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR; occupies three
islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by UAE (Jazireh-ye Abu Musa
or Abu Musa, Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg or Greater Tunb,
and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek or Lesser Tunb); periodic disputes with
Afghanistan over Helmand water rights; Boluch question with Afghanistan
and Pakistan

Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts,
mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Land use: 8% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 27% meadows and
pastures; 11% forest and woodland; 54% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; desertification

People
Population: 55,647,001 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 91 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Iranian(s); adjective–Iranian

Ethnic divisions: 51% Persian, 25% Azerbaijani, 9% Kurd, 8% Gilaki
and Mazandarani, 2% Lur, 1% Baloch, 1% Arab, 3% other

Religion: 95% Shia Muslim, 4% Sunni Muslim, 2% Zoroastrian, Jewish,
Christian, and Bahai

Language: 58% Persian and Persian dialects, 26% Turkic and Turkic
dialects, 9% Kurdish, 2% Luri, 1% Baloch, 1% Arabic, 1% Turkish, 2% other

Literacy: 48% (est.)

Labor force: 15,400,000; 33% agriculture, 21% manufacturing; shortage of
skilled labor (1988 est.)

Organized labor: none

Government
Long-form name: Islamic Republic of Iran

Type: theocratic republic

Capital: Tehran

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (ostanha, singular–ostan);
Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari, Azarbayjan-e Khavari,
Bakhtaran, Bushehr, Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari,
Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam,
Kerman, Khorasan, Khuzestan,
Kohkiluyeh va Buyer Ahmadi, Kordestan,
Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Semnan,
Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan

Independence: 1 April 1979, Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed

Constitution: 2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of
the presidency

Legal system: the new Constitution codifies Islamic principles of
government

National holiday: Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)

Executive branch: cleric (faqih), president, Council of Cabinet Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly
(Majlis-e-Shura-e-Islami)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Cleric and functional Chief of State–Leader of the Islamic
Revolution Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 3 June 1989);

Head of Government–President Ali Akbar RAFSANJANI (since 3 August
1989);

Political parties and leaders: there are at least seven licensed
parties; the two most important are–Militant Clerics Association, Mehdi
Mahdavi-Karubi and Mohammad Asqar Musavi-Khoinima; Fedaiyin Islam
Organization, Sadeq Khalkhali

Suffrage: universal at age 15

Elections:
President–last held NA July 1989 (next to be held April 1993);
results–Ali Akbar Rafsanjani was elected with only token opposition;

Islamic Consultative Assembly–last held 8 April and 13 May
1988 (next to be held April 1992); results–percent of vote by party
NA;
seats–(270 seats total) number of seats by party NA

Communists: 1,000 to 2,000 est. hardcore; 15,000 to 20,000 est.
sympathizers; crackdown in 1983 crippled the party; trials of captured leaders
began in late 1983 and remain incomplete

Other political or pressure groups: groups that generally
support the Islamic Republic include Hizballah,
Hojjatiyeh Society, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution, Muslim Students
Following the Line of the Imam, and Tehran Militant Clergy Association;
Mojahedin Khalq Organization (MKO), People's Fedayeen, and Kurdish Democratic
Party are armed political groups that have been almost completely repressed by
the government
Member of: CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, IDA, IDB, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, IPU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UNICEF, UNIDO,
WHO

Diplomatic representation: none; protecting power in the US is
Algeria–Iranian Interests Section, 2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW,
Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 965-4990;
US–protecting power in Iran is Switzerland

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the
national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red is centered
in the white band; Allah Akbar (God is Great) in white Arabic script is
repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the
top edge of the red band

Economy
Overview: Since the 1979 revolution, the banks, petroleum industry,
transportation, utilities, and mining have been nationalized, but the
new five-year plan–the first since the revolution–passed in January
1990, calls for the transfer of many government-controlled enterprises
to the private sector. War-related disruptions, massive corruption,
mismanagement, demographic pressures, and ideological rigidities have kept
economic growth at depressed levels. Oil accounts for 90% of export
revenues. A combination of war damage and low oil prices brought a 2%
drop in GNP in 1988. GNP probably rose slightly in 1989, considerably
short of the 3.4% population growth rate in 1989. Heating oil and gasoline
are rationed. Agriculture has suffered from the war, land reform, and shortages
of equipment and materials. The five-year plan seeks to reinvigorate the
economy by increasing the role of the private sector, boosting nonoil
income, and securing foreign loans. The plan is overly ambitious but
probably will generate some short-term relief.

GNP: $97.6 billion, per capita $1,800; real growth rate 0-1% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50-80% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1989)

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $55.1 billion, including capital
expenditures of $11.5 billion (FY88 est.)

Exports: $12.3 billion (fob, 1988);
commodities–petroleum 90%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides;
partners–Japan, Turkey, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, France, FRG

Imports: $12.0 billion (cif, 1988); commodities–machinery,
military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, technical services,
refined oil products; partners–FRG, Japan, Turkey, UK, Italy

External debt: $4-5 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 14,579,000 kW capacity; 40,000 million kWh produced,
740 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other building
materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil
production), metal fabricating (steel and copper)

Agriculture: principal products–rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits,
nuts, cotton, dairy products, wool, caviar; not self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy for the domestic and
international drug trade

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $1.0 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.5 billion;
Communist countries (1970-88), $976 million; note–aid fell sharply
following the 1979 revolution

Currency: Iranian rial (plural–rials); 1 Iranian rial (IR) = 100 dinars;
note–domestic figures are generally referred to in terms of the toman
(plural–tomans), which equals 10 rials

Exchange rates: Iranian rials (IR) per US$1–70.019 (January 1990),
72.015 (1989), 68.683 (1988), 71.460 (1987), 78.760 (1986), 91.052 (1985)

Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March

Communications
Railroads: 4,601 km total; 4,509 km 1.432-meter gauge, 92 km 1.676-meter
gauge; 730 km under construction from Bafq to Bandar Abbas

Highways: 140,072 km total; 46,866 km gravel and crushed stone; 49,440 km
improved earth; 42,566 km bituminous and bituminous-treated surfaces;
1,200 km (est.) of rural road network

Inland waterways: 904 km; the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by
maritime traffic for about 130 km, but closed since September 1980 because
of Iran-Iraq war

Pipelines: crude oil, 5,900 km; refined products, 3,900 km; natural gas,
3,300 km

Ports: Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war),
Bandar Beheshti, Bandar-e Abbas, Bandar-e Bushehr, Bandar-e Khomeyni,
Bandar-e Shahid Rajai, Khorramshahr (largely destroyed in fighting
during 1980-88 war)

Merchant marine: 133 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,631,836
GRT/8,662,454 DWT; includes 36 cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 33 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 3 refrigerated cargo,
49 bulk, 2 combination bulk

Civil air: 42 major transport aircraft

Airports: 201 total, 175 usable; 82 with permanent-surface runways; 17
with runways over 3,659 m; 17 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 68 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: radio relay extends throughout country; system
centered in Tehran; 2,143,000 telephones; stations–62 AM, 30 FM, 250 TV;
satellite earth stations–2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT;
HF and microwave to Turkey, Pakistan, Syria, Kuwait, and USSR

Defense Forces
Branches: Islamic Republic of Iran Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force,
and Revolutionary Guard Corps (includes Basij militia and own ground, air, and
naval forces), Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 12,302,967; 7,332,614 fit for military
service; 569,647 reach military age (21) annually

Defense expenditures: 8% of GNP, or $7.8 billion (1989 est.)
.pa
Iraq
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 434,920 km2; land area: 433,970 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Idaho

Land boundaries: 3,454 km total; Iran 1,458 km, Iraq – Saudi Arabia
Neutral Zone 191 km, Jordan 134 km, Kuwait 240 km, Saudi Arabia 495 km,
Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km

Coastline: 58 km

Éilimh muirí:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Disputes: Iraq began formal UN peace negotiations with Iran in August
1988 to end the war that began on 22 September 1980–sovereignty over the Shatt
al Arab waterway, troop withdrawal, freedom of navigation, and
prisoner of war exchange are the major issues for negotiation; Kurdish
question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR; shares Neutral Zone with
Saudi Arabia–in July 1975, Iraq and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement
to divide the zone between them, but the agreement must be ratified
before it becomes effective; disputes Kuwaiti ownership of Warbah and
Bubiyan islands; periodic disputes with upstream riparian
Syria over Euphrates water rights; potential dispute over water
development plans by Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Climate: desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers

Terrain: mostly broad plains; reedy marshes in southeast; mountains
along borders with Iran and Turkey

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur

Land use: 12% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 9% meadows and pastures;
3% forest and woodland; 75% other; includes 4% irrigated

Environment: development of Tigris-Euphrates river systems contingent
upon agreements with upstream riparians (Syria, Turkey); air and water
pollution; soil degradation (salinization) and erosion; desertification

People
Population: 18,781,770 (July 1990), growth rate 3.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 67 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 68 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Iraqi(s); adjective–Iraqi

Ethnic divisions: 75-80% Arab, 15-20% Kurdish, 5% Turkoman, Assyrian
or other

Religion: 97% Muslim (60-65% Shia, 32-37% Sunni), 3% Christian or other

Language: Arabic (official), Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions),
Assyrian, Armenian

Literacy: 55-65% (1989 est.)

Labor force: 3,400,000 (1984); 39% services, 33% agriculture, 28%
industry, severe labor shortage (1987); expatriate labor force about
1,000,000 (1989)

Organized labor: less than 10% of the labor force

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Iraq

Type: republic

Capital: Baghdad

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (muhafazat,
singular–muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna,
Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, As Sulaymaniyah, At Tamim, Babil,
Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Arbil, Karbala,
Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit

Independence: 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)

Constitution: 22 September 1968, effective 16 July 1970 (interim
Constitution); new constitution now in final stages of drafting

Legal system: based on Islamic law in special religious courts, civil law
system elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 17 July (1968)

Executive branch: president, vice president, chairman of the Revolutionary
Command Council, vice chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council,
prime minister, first deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Majlis al Umma)

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Saddam HUSAYN
(since 16 July 1979); Vice President Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF
(since 21 April 1974)

Political parties: National Progressive Front is a coalition of the
Arab Bath Socialist Party, Kurdistan Democratic Party, and Kurdistan
Revolutionary Party

Suffrage: universal adult at age 18

Elections:
National Assembly–last held on 1 April 1989 (next to be held NA);
results–Shia Arabs 30%, Kurds 15%, Sunni Arabs 53%, Christians 2% est.;
seats–(250 total) number of seats by party NA

Communists: about 1,500 hardcore members

Other political or pressure groups: political parties and activity
severely restricted; possibly some opposition to regime from disaffected
members of the regime, Army officers, and religious and ethnic dissidents

Member of: ACC, Arab League, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dr. Mohamed Sadiq AL-MASHAT;
Chancery at 1801 P Street NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 483-7500;
US–Ambassador April C. GLASPIE; Embassy in Masbah Quarter (opposite the
Foreign Ministry Club), Baghdad (mailing address is PO Box 2447 Alwiyah,
Baghdad); telephone Õ964å (1) 719-6138 or 719-6139, 718-1840, 719-3791

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with
three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band;
similar to the flags of the YAR which has one star and Syria which has two stars
(in a horizontal line centered in the white band)–all green and five-pointed;
also similar to the flag of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle centered in the
white band

Geilleagar
Overview: The Bathist regime engages in extensive central planning
and management of industrial production and foreign trade while leaving
some small-scale industry and services and most agriculture to
private enterprise. The economy is dominated by the oil sector, which provides
about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. Since the early 1980s financial
problems, caused by war expenditures and damage to oil export facilities by
Iran, have led the government to implement austerity measures and to reschedule
foreign debt payments. Oil exports have gradually increased with the
construction of new pipelines. Agricultural development remains hampered by
labor shortages, salinization, and dislocations caused by previous land reform
and collectivization programs. The industrial sector, although accorded high
priority by the government, is under financial constraints. New investment funds
are generally allocated only to projects that result in import substitution or
foreign exchange earnings.

GNP: $35 billion, per capita $1,940; real growth rate 5%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30-40% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: less than 5% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $NA billion; expenditures $35 billion,
including capital expenditures of NA (1989)

Exports: $12.5 billion (fob, 1988);
commodities–crude oil and refined products, machinery, chemicals, dates;
partners–US, Brazil, USSR, Italy, Turkey, France, Japan, Yugoslavia
(1988)

Imports: $10.2 billion (cif, 1988);
commodities–manufactures, food;
partners–Turkey, US, FRG, UK, France, Japan, Romania, Yugoslavia,
Brazil (1988)

External debt: $40 billion (1988 est.), excluding debt to Persian
Gulf Arab states

Industrial production: NA%

Electricity: 9,902,000 kW capacity; 20,000 million kWh produced,
1,110 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food
processing

Agriculture: accounts for less than 10% of GNP but 33% of labor force;
principal products–wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, other fruit,
cotton, wool; livestock–cattle, sheep; not self-sufficient in food output

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $3 million; Iarthair
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $607
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1980-89), $37.2 billion; Communist countries
(1970-88), $3.9 billion

Currency: Iraqi dinar (plural–dinars); 1 Iraqi dinar (ID) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1–0.3109 (fixed rate since 1982)

Bhliain fioscach: bliain féilire

Cumarsáid
Railroads: 2,962 km total; 2,457 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 505 km
1.000-meter gauge

Highways: 25,479 km total; 8,290 km paved, 5,534 km improved earth,
11,655 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 1,015 km; Shatt al Arab usually navigable by maritime
traffic for about 130 km, but closed since September 1980 because of Iran-Iraq
war; Tigris and Euphrates navigable by shallow-draft steamers (of little
importance); Shatt al Basrah canal navigable in sections by
shallow-draft vessels

Ports: Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr

Merchant marine: 44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 947,721
GRT/1,703,988 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 18 cargo,
1 refrigerated cargo, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 19 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker

Pipelines: crude oil, 4,350 km; 725 km refined products; 1,360 km natural
gas

Civil air: 64 major transport aircraft (including 30 IL-76s
used by the Iraq Air Force)

Airports: 111 total, 101 usable; 72 with permanent-surface runways; 8 with
runways over 3,659 m; 53 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 14 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good network consists of coaxial cables, radio relay
links, and radiocommunication stations; 632,000 telephones; stations–9
AM, 1 FM, 81 TV; satellite earth stations–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT,
1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 GORIZONT Atlantic Ocean in the Intersputnik
system; coaxial cable and radio relay to Kuwait, Jordan, Syria, and Turkey

Fórsaí cosanta
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Border Guard Force, mobile
police force, Republican Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,097,190; 2,284,417 fit for military
seirbhíse; 219,701 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: NA
.On
Iraq – Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 3,520 km2; land area: 3,520 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 389 km total; 191 km Iraq, 198 km Saudi Arabia

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Climate: harsh, dry desert

Terrain: sandy desert

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other (sandy desert)

Environment: harsh, inhospitable

Note: landlocked; located west of quadripoint with Iraq, Kuwait, and
Saudi Arabia

PeopleSoft
Population: uninhabited

Rialtas
Long-form name: none

Type: joint administration by Iraq and Saudi Arabia; in July 1975,
Iraq and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement to divide the zone between
them, but the agreement must be ratified, however, before it becomes
effective.

Geilleagar
Overview: no economic activity

Cumarsáid
Highways: none; some secondary roads

Fórsaí cosanta
Note: defense is the joint responsibility of Iraq and Saudi Arabia
.On
Ireland
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 70,280 km2; land area: 68,890 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundary: 360 km with UK

Coastline: 1,448 km

Éilimh muirí:

Continental shelf: no precise definition;

Crios iascaireachta Eisiach: 200 nm;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary with the UK; Northern Ireland question with
the UK; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK
(Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

Climate: temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current;
mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time

Terrain: mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged
hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast

Natural resources: zinc, lead, natural gas, crude oil, barite,
copper, gypsum, limestone, dolomite, peat, silver

Land use: 14% arable land; Negl% bharra buana; 71% meadows and
féarach; 5% forest and woodland; 10% other

Environment: deforestation

PeopleSoft
Population: 3,500,212 (July 1990), growth rate -0.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1990)

Ráta báis: 9 bás / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Net migration rate: – 10 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Ráta mortlaíochta naíonán: 6 básanna / 1,000 breitheanna beo (1990)

Ionchas saoil ag breithe: 72 bliain fireann, 78 bliain baineann (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Irishman(men), Irish (collective pl.); adjective–Irish

Ethnic divisions: Celtic, with English minority

Religion: 94% Roman Catholic, 4% Anglican, 2% other

Language: Irish (Gaelic) and English; English is the language generally
used, with Gaelic spoken in a few areas, mostly along the western seaboard

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 1,310,000; 57.3% services, 19.1% manufacturing and
construction, 14.8% agriculture, forestry, and fishing (1988)

Organized labor: 36% of labor force

Rialtas
Long-form name: Republic of Ireland

Cineál: Poblacht

Capital: Dublin

Administrative divisions: 26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork,
Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick,
Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary,
Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow

Independence: 6 December 1921 (from UK)

Constitution: 29 December 1937; adopted 1937

Legal system: based on English common law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: St. Patrick's Day, 17 March

Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Oireachtas) consists of an
upper house or Senate (Seanad Eireann) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Dail Eireann)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Ceannairí:
Chief of State–President Dr. Patrick J. HILLERY (since 3 December
1976);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Charles J. HAUGHEY (since 12 July
1989, the fourth time elected as prime minister)

Political parties and leaders: Fianna Fail, Charles Haughey;
Labor Party, Richard Spring; Fine Gael, Alan Dukes; Communist Party
of Ireland, Michael O'Riordan; Workers' Party, Proinsias DeRossa;
Sinn Fein, Gerry Adams; Progressive Democrats, Desmond O'Malley;
note–Prime Minister Haughey heads a coalition consisting of the
Fianna Fail and the Progressive Democrats

Vótáil chomhchoiteann: Uilíoch ag aois 18

Faighteoir:
President–last held 21 October 1983 (next to be held October
1990); results–Dr. Patrick Hillery reelected;

Senate–last held on 17 February 1987 (next to be held February
1992);
torthaí-faoin gcéad de vóta ag páirtí NA;
seats–(60 total, 49 elected) Fianna Fail 30, Fine Gael 16, Labor 3,
Independents 11;

House of Representatives–last held on 12 July 1989 (next to be held
NA June 1994);
results–Fianna Fail 44.0%, Fine Gael 29.4%, Labor Party 9.3%,
Progressive Democrats 5.4%, Workers' Party 4.9%, Sinn Fein 1.1%,
independents 5.9%;
seats–(166 total) Fianna Fail 77, Fine Gael 55, Labor Party 15,
Workers' Party 7, Progressive Democrats 6, independents 6

Communists: under 500

Member of: CCC, Council of Europe, EC, EMS, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICES, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Padraic N. MACKERNAN; Seansaireachta ag
2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-3939;
there are Irish Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, New York, and
San Francisco;
US–Ambassador Richard A. MOORE; Embassy at 42 Elgin Road,
Ballsbridge, Dublin; telephone Õ353å (1) 688777

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange;
similar to the flag of the Ivory Coast which is shorter and has the colors
reversed–orange (hoist side), white, and green; also similar to the flag of
Italy which is shorter and has colors of green (hoist side), white, and red

Geilleagar
Overview: The economy is small, open, and trade dependent. Agriculture,
once the most important sector, is now dwarfed by industry, which accounts for
35% of GNP and about 80% of exports and employs 20% of the labor force. The
government has successfully reduced the rate of inflation from double-digit
figures in the late 1970s to about 4% in 1989. In 1987, after years of deficits,
the balance of payments was brought into the black. Unemployment, however,
is a serious problem. A 1989 unemployment rate of 17.7% placed Ireland
along with Spain as the countries with the worst jobless records in
Western Europe.

GDP: $31.4 billion, per capita $8,900; real growth rate 4.3% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.2% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 17.7% (1989)

Budget: revenues $10.9 billion; expenditures $11.2 billion, including
capital expenditures of $1.5 billion (1989)

Exports: $20.3 billion (fob, 1989); commodities–live animals,
animal products, chemicals, data processing equipment, industrial machinery;
partners–EC 74% (UK 35%, FRG 11%, France 9%), US 8%

Imports: $17.3 billion (cif, 1989); commodities–food, animal
feed, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products, machinery, textiles,
clothing; partners–EC 66% (UK 42%, FRG 9%, France 4%), US 16%

External debt: $16.1 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 9.5% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 4,957,000 kW capacity; 14,480 million kWh produced,
4,080 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals, machinery, transportation equipment, glass and crystal

Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GNP and 14.8% of the labor force;
principal crops–turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat;
livestock–meat and dairy products; 85% self-sufficient in food; food
shortages include bread grain, fruits, vegetables

Cúnamh: NA

Currency: Irish pound (plural–pounds); 1 Irish pound (LIr) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Irish pounds (LIr) per US$1–0.6399 (January 1990),
0.7047 (1989), 0.6553 (1988), 0.6720 (1987), 0.7454 (1986), 0.9384 (1985)

Bhliain fioscach: bliain féilire

Cumarsáid
Railroads: Irish National Railways (CIE) operates 1,947 km 1.602-meter
gauge, government owned; 485 km double track; 38 km electrified

Highways: 92,294 km total; 87,422 km surfaced, 4,872 km gravel or crushed
stone

Inland waterways: limited for commercial traffic

Pipelines: natural gas, 225 km

Ports: Cork, Dublin, Shannon Estuary, Waterford

Merchant marine: 67 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 113,569 GRT/139,681
DWT; includes 3 short-sea passenger, 29 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo,
2 container, 23 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 specialized
tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 5 bulk

Civil air: 23 major transport aircraft

Airports: 40 total, 37 usable; 18 with permanent-surface runways;
aon cheann le rúidbhealaí níos mó ná 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with
Rúidbhealaí 1.220-2.439 m

Telecommunications: small, modern system using cable and radio relay
circuits; 900,000 telephones; stations–45 AM, 16 (29 relays) FM, 18
(68 relays) TV; 5 coaxial submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations

Fórsaí cosanta
Branches: Army, Naval Service, Army Air Corps

Military manpower: males 15-49, 870,161; 705,765 fit for military service;
33,259 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.6% of GDP, or $500 million (1989 est.)
.On
Israel
(also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries)
Note: The Arab territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war are not
included in the data below. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords and
reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace initiative, the final
status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, their relationship with their neighbors,
and a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated among the
concerned parties. The Camp David Accords further specify that these
negotiations will resolve the location of the respective boundaries. Pending the
completion of this process, it is US policy that the final status of the West
Bank and Gaza Strip has yet to be determined (see West Bank and Gaza Strip
entries). On 25 April 1982 Israel relinquished control of the Sinai to Egypt.
Statistics for the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights are included in the Syria
entry.

Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 20,770 km2; land area: 20,330 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 1,006 km total; Egypt 255 km, Jordan 238 km,
Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307, Gaza Strip 51 km

Coastline: 273 km

Éilimh muirí:

Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 6 nm

Disputes: separated from Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank by the
1949 Armistice Line; differences with Jordan over the location
of the 1949 Armistice Line which separates the two countries;
West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli occupied with status
to be determined; Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; Israeli troops in southern
Lebanon since June 1982; water-sharing issues with Jordan

Climate: temperate; hot and dry in desert areas

Terrain: Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains;
Jordan Rift Valley

Natural resources: copper, phosphates, bromide, potash, clay, sand,
sulfur, asphalt, manganese, small amounts of natural gas and crude oil

Land use: 17% arable land; 5% permanent crops; 40% meadows and pastures;
6% forest and woodland; 32% eile; includes 11% irrigated

Environment: sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; limited
arable land and natural water resources pose serious constraints; dífhoraoisiú =

Note: there are 173 Jewish settlements in the West Bank, 35 in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 18 in the Gaza Strip, and 14 Israeli-built
Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem

PeopleSoft
Population: 4,409,218 (July 1990), growth rate 1.5% (1989); includes
70,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank, 10,500 in the Israeli-occupied
Golan Heights, 2,500 in the Gaza Strip, and 110,000 in East Jerusalem
(1989 est.)

Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Ráta Glan imirce: 0 imircigh / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (July 1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 76 years male, 79 years female (July 1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Israeli(s); adjective–Israeli

Ethnic divisions: 83% Jewish, 17% non-Jewish (mostly Arab)

Religion: 83% Judaism, 13.1% Islam (mostly Sunni Muslim), 2.3% Christian,
1.6% Druze

Language: Hebrew (official); Arabic used officially for Arab minority;
English most commonly used foreign language

Literacy: 88% Jews, 70% Arabs

Labor force: 1,400,000 (1984 est.); 29.5% public services; 22.8% industry,
mining, and manufacturing; 12.8% commerce; 9.5% finance and business;
6.8% transport, storage, and communications; 6.5% construction and public works;
5.5% agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 5.8% personal and other services;
1.0% electricity and water (1983)

Organized labor: 90% of labor force

Rialtas
Long-form name: State of Israel

Cineál: Poblacht

Capital: Israel proclaimed Jerusalem its capital in 1950, but the US,
like nearly all other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv

Administrative divisions: 6 districts (mehozot, singular–mehoz); Central,
Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv

Independence: 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British
administration)

Constitution: no formal constitution; some of the functions of a
constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the basic
laws of the Parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law

Legal system: mixture of English common law, British Mandate
regulations, and, in personal matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim legal
systems; in December 1985 Israel informed the UN Secretariat that it would
no longer accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 May 1989; Israel declared
independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday
may occur in April or May

Executive branch: president, prime minister, vice prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Knesset

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Ceannairí:
Chief of State–President Gen. Chaim HERZOG (since 5 May 1983);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Yitzhak SHAMIR (since 20 October 1986);
Vice Prime Minister Shimon PERES (Prime Minister from 13 September 1984 to
20 October 1986, when he rotated to Vice Prime Minister)

Political parties and leaders: Israel currently has a national unity
government comprising five parties that hold 95 of the Knesset's
120 seats; Members of the unity government–Likud bloc, Prime
Minister Yitzhak Shamir; Labor Party, Vice Prime Minister and Finance
Minister Shimon Peres; Sephardic Torah Guardians (SHAS), Minister of
Immigrant Absorption Yitzhak Peretz; National Religious Party, Minister of
Religious Affairs Zevulun Hammer; Agudat Yisrael, Deputy Minister
of Labor and Social Welfare Moshe Zeev Feldman;

Opposition parties–Tehiya Party, Yuval Ne'eman; Tzomet Party,
Rafael Eytan; Moledet Party, Rehavam Ze'evi; Degel HaTorah, Avraham
Ravitz; Citizens' Rights Movement, Shulamit Aloni; United Workers' Party
(MAPAM), Yair Tzaban; Center Movement-Shinui, Amnon Rubenstein; New
Communist Party of Israel (RAKAH), Meir Wilner; Progressive List for
Peace, Muhammad Mi'ari; Arab Democratic Party, Abd Al Wahab Darawshah

Vótáil chomhchoiteann: Uilíoch ag aois 18

Faighteoir:
President–last held 23 February 1988 (next to be held February
1994); results–Gen. Chaim Herzog reelected by Knesset;

Parliament–last held 1 November 1988 (next to be held by
November 1992);
seats–(120 total) Likud bloc 40, Labor Party 39, SHAS 6, National Religious
Party 5, Agudat Yisrael 5, Citizens' Rights Movement 5, RAKAH 4,
Tehiya Party 3, MAPAM 3, Tzomet Party 2, Moledet Party 2, Degel HaTorah 2,
Center Movement-Shinui 2, Progressive List for Peace 1, Arab Democratic Party 1

Communists: Hadash (predominantly Arab but with Jews in its leadership)
has some 1,500 members

Other political or pressure groups: Gush Emunim, Jewish nationalists
advocating Jewish settlement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip; Peace Now,
critical of government's West Bank/Gaza Strip and Lebanon policies

Member of: CCC, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA,
IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOOC, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, OAS (observer), UN,
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Moshe ARAD; Seansaireachta ag
3514 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 364-5500;
there are Israeli Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco;
US–Ambassador William A. BROWN; Embassy at 71 Hayarkon Street,
Tel Aviv (mailing address is APO New York 09672); telephone Õ972å (3) 654338;
there is a US Consulate General in Jerusalem

Flag: white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the
Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands
near the top and bottom edges of the flag

Geilleagar
Overview: Israel has a market economy with substantial government
participation. It depends on imports for crude oil, food, grains, raw materials,
and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has developed
its agriculture and industry sectors on an intensive scale over the past 20
years. Industry accounts for about 23% of the labor force, agriculture for 6%,
and services for most of the balance. Diamonds, high-technology
machinery, and agricultural products (fruits and vegetables) are the
biggest export earners. The balance of payments has traditionally
been negative, but is offset by large transfer payments and foreign loans.
Nearly two-thirds of Israel's $16 billion external debt is owed to
the US, which is its major source for economic and military aid.
To earn needed foreign exchange, Israel must continue to exploit
high-technology niches in the international market, such as medical
scanning equipment. In 1987 the economy showed a 5.2% growth in real GNP, the
best gain in nearly a decade; in 1988-89 the gain was only 1% annually,
largely because of the economic impact of the Palestinian uprising
(intifadah). Inflation dropped from an annual rate of over 400%
in 1984 to about 16% in 1987-88 without any major increase in
unemployment.

GNP: $38 billion, per capita $8,700; real growth rate 1% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 9% (December 1989)

Budget: revenues $24.2 billion; expenditures $26.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $7 billion (FY89 est.)

Exports: $10.4 billion (fob, 1989 est.); commodities–polished
diamonds, citrus and other fruits, textiles and clothing, processed foods,
fertilizer and chemical products, military hardware, electronics;
partners–US, UK, FRG, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy

Imports: $12.4 billion (cif, 1989 est.); commodities–military
equipment, rough diamonds, oil, chemicals, machinery, iron and steel, cereals,
textiles, vehicles, ships, aircraft; partners–US, FRG, UK, Switzerland,
Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg

External debt: $16.4 billion (March 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate – 1.5% (1989)

Electricity: 4,392,000 kW capacity; 17,500 million kWh produced,
4,000 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing, diamond cutting and polishing, textiles,
clothing, chemicals, metal products, military equipment, transport equipment,
electrical equipment, miscellaneous machinery, potash mining, high-technology
electronics, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GNP; largely self-sufficient in food
production, except for bread grains; principal products–citrus and other
fruits, vegetables, cotton; livestock products–beef, dairy, and poultry

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $15.8 billion; Iarthair
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.2 billion

Currency: new Israeli shekel (plural–shekels);
1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1–1.9450
(January 1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987), 1.4878 (1986),
1.1788 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Cumarsáid
Railroads: 594 km 1.435-meter gauge, single track; diesel operated

Highways: 4,500 km; majority is bituminous surfaced

Pipelines: crude oil, 708 km; refined products, 290 km; natural gas, 89 km

Ports: Ashdod, Haifa, Elat

Merchant marine: 31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 483,424
GRT/560,085 DWT; includes 9 cargo, 20 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo

Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft

Airports: 55 total, 52 usable; 26 with permanent-surface runways;
aon cheann le rúidbhealaí níos mó ná 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
11 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: most highly developed in the Middle East though not
the largest; good system of coaxial cable and radio relay; 1,800,000 telephones;
stations–11 AM, 24 FM, 54 TV; 2 submarine cables; satellite earth stations–2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

Fórsaí cosanta
Branches: Israel Defense Forces; historically there have been no separate
Israeli military services; ground, air, and naval components are branches of
Israel Defense Forces

Military manpower: eligible 15-49, 2,159,462; of the 1,089,346 males
15-49, 898,272 are fit for military service; of the 1,070,116 females 15-49,
878,954 are fit for military service; 43,644 males and 41,516 females reach
military age (18) annually; both sexes are liable for military service

Defense expenditures: 8.5% of GNP, or $3.2 billion (1989 est.);
note–does not include an estimated $1.8 billion in US military aid
.On
Italy
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 301,230 km2; land area: 294,020 km2; includes Sardinia
and Sicily

Comparative area: slightly larger than Arizona

Land boundaries: 1,902.2 km total; Austria 430 km, France 488 km,
San Marino 39 km, Switzerland 740 km, Vatican City 3.2 km, Yugoslavia
202 km

Coastline: 4,996 km

Éilimh muirí:

Continental shelf: 200 m or to depth of exploitation;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Disputes: South Tyrol question with Austria

Climate: predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry
in south

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands

Natural resources: mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, dwindling
natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, coal

Land use: 32% arable land; 10% permanent crops; 17% meadows and pastures;
22% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes 10% irrigated

Environment: regional risks include landslides, mudflows, snowslides,
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding, pollution; land sinkage in Venice

Note: strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as
well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe

PeopleSoft
Population: 57,664,405 (July 1990), growth rate 0.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 10 births/1,000 population (1990)

Ráta báis: 9 bás / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Ráta mortlaíochta naíonán: 6 básanna / 1,000 breitheanna beo (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Italian(s); adjective–Italian

Ethnic divisions: primarily Italian but population includes small clusters
of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians
in the south; Sicilians; Sardinians

Religion: almost 100% nominally Roman Catholic

Language: Italian; parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly
German speaking; significant French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region;
Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area

Literacy: 93%

Labor force: 23,670,000; 56.7% services, 37.9% industry, 5.4% agriculture
(1987)

Organized labor: 40-45% of labor force (est.)

Rialtas
Long-form name: Italian Republic

Cineál: Poblacht

Capital: Rome

Administrative divisions: 20 regions (regioni, singular–regione);
Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia,
Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna, Sicilia,
Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta, Veneto

Independence: 17 March 1861, Kingdom of Italy proclaimed

Constitution: 1 January 1948

Legal system: based on civil law system, with ecclesiastical law
influence; judicial review under certain conditions in Constitutional Court;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Republic, 2 June (1946)

Executive branch: president, prime minister,

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlamento) consists of
an upper chamber or Senate (Senato) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies
(Camera dei Deputati)

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (Corte Costituzionale)

Ceannairí:
Chief of State–President Francesco COSSIGA (since 3 July 1985);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Giulio ANDREOTTI (since 22 July 1989,
heads the government for the sixth time); Deputy Prime Minister Claudio
MARTELLI (since 23 July 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party (DC), Arnaldo
Forlani (general secretary), Ciriaco De Mita (president); Communist Party
(PCI), Achille Occhetto (secretary general); Socialist Party (PSI), Bettino
Craxi (party secretary); Social Democratic Party (PSDI), Antonio Cariglia (party
secretary); Liberal Party (PLI), Renato Altissimo (secretary general); Iodáilis
Social Movement (MSI), Giuseppe (Pino) Rauti (national secretary); Republican
Party (PRI), Giorgio La Malfa (political secretary); Italy's 49th postwar
government was formed on 23 July 1989, with Prime Minister Andreotti,
a Christian Democrat, presiding over a five-party coalition consisting of the
Christian Democrats, Socialists, Social Democrats, Republicans, and Liberals

Suffrage: universal at age 18 (except in senatorial elections, where
minimum age is 25)

Faighteoir:
Senate–last held 14-15 June 1987 (next to be held by June 1992);
results–DC 33.9%, PCI 28.3%, PSI 10.7%, others 27.1%;
seats–(320 total, 315 elected) DC 125, PCI 100, PSI 36, others 54;

Chamber of Deputies–last held 14-15 June 1987 (next to be held by
June 1992);
results–DC 34.3%, PCI 26.6%, PSI 14.3%, MSI 5.9%, PRI 3.7%, PSDI 3.0%,
Radicals 2.6%, Greens 2.5%, PLI 2.1%, Proletarian Democrats 1.7%,
others 3.3%;
seats–(630 total) DC 234, PCI 177, PSI 94, MSI 35, PRI 21, PSDI 17,
Radicals 13, Greens 13, PLI 11, Proletarian Democrats 8, others 7

Communists: 1,673,751 members (1983)

Other political or pressure groups: Vatican City; three major
trade union confederations (CGIL–Communist dominated, CISL–Christian
Democratic, and UIL–Social Democratic, Socialist, and Republican);
Italian manufacturers association (Confindustria); organized farm groups
(Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura)

Member of: ADB, ASSIMER, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, ECOWAS, EIB,
EMS, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB–Inter-American
Development Bank, IFAD, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOOC, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU, NATO, OAS (observer), OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Rinaldo PETRIGNANI; Seansaireachta ag
1601 Fuller Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 328-5500;
there are Italian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Houston, New Orleans,
Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Consulates in Detroit and
Newark (New Jersey);
US–Ambassador Peter F. SECCHIA; Embassy at Via Veneto 119/A, 00187-Rome
(mailing address is APO New York 09794); telephone Õ39å (6) 46741; there are
US Consulates General in Florence, Genoa, Milan, Naples, and Palermo (Sicily)

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red;
similar to the flag of Ireland which is longer and is green (hoist side), white,
and orange; also similar to the flag of the Ivory Coast which has the colors
reversed–orange (hoist side), white, and green

Geilleagar
Overview: Since World War II the economy has changed from one based on
agriculture into a ranking industrial economy, with approximately the same total
and per capita output as France and the UK. The country is still divided into a
developed industrial north, dominated by large private companies and state
enterprises and an undeveloped agricultural south. Services account for 58% of
GDP, industry 37%, and agriculture 5%. Most raw materials needed by industry and
over 75% of energy requirements must be imported. The economic recovery that
began in mid-1983 has continued through 1989, with the economy growing at an
annual average rate of 3%. For the 1990s, Italy faces the problems of
refurbishing a tottering communications system, curbing the increasing
pollution in major industrial centers, and adjusting to the new
competitive forces accompanying the ongoing economic integration of the
European Community.

GDP: $803.3 billion, per capita $14,000; real growth rate 3.3% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.6% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 11.9% (1989)

Budget: revenues $355 billion; expenditures $448 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

Exports: $141.6 billion (fob, 1989); commodities–textiles,
wearing apparel, metals, transportation equipment, chemicals;
partners–EC 57%, US 9%, OPEC 4%

Imports: $143.1 billion (fob, 1989); commodities–petroleum,
industrial machinery, chemicals, metals, food, agricultural products;
partners–EC 57%, OPEC 6%, US 6%

External debt: NA

Industrial production: growth rate 2.9% (1989)

Electricity: 56,022,000 kW capacity; 201,400 million kWh produced,
3,500 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: machinery and transportation equipment, iron and steel,
chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles

Agriculture: accounts for about 5% of GNP and 5% of the
work force; self-sufficient in foods other than meat and dairy products;
principal crops–fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets,
soybeans, grain, olives; fish catch of 554,000 metric tons in 1987

Aid: donor–ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $18.7 billion

Currency: Italian lira (plural–lire); 1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100
centesimi

Exchange rates: Italian lire (Lit) per US$1–1,262.5 (January 1990),
1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987), 1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985)

Bhliain fioscach: bliain féilire

Cumarsáid
Railroads: 20,011 km total; 16,066 km 1.435-meter government-owned
standard gauge (8,999 km electrified); 3,945 km privately owned–2,100 km
1.435-meter standard gauge (1,155 km electrified) and 1,845 km 0.950-meter
narrow gauge (380 km electrified)

Highways: 294,410 km total; autostrada 5,900 km, state highways 45,170
km, provincial highways 101,680 km, communal highways 141,660 km; 260,500 km
concrete, bituminous, or stone block, 26,900 km gravel and crushed stone,
7,010 km earth

Inland waterways: 2,400 km for various types of commercial
traffic, although of limited overall value

Pipelines: crude oil, 1,703 km; refined products, 2,148 km; natural gas,
19,400 km

Ports: Cagliari (Sardinia), Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno, Naples,
Palermo (Sicily), Taranto, Trieste, Venice

Merchant marine: 547 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,871,505
GRT/10,805,368 DWT; includes 6 passenger, 41 short-sea passenger, 100 cargo,
5 refrigerated cargo, 22 container, 72 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 4 vehicle
carrier, 1 multifunction large-load carrier, 2 livestock carrier, 147 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 37 chemical tanker, 29 liquefied gas, 8
specialized tanker, 16 combination ore/oil, 55 bulk, 2 combination bulk

Civil air: 132 major transport aircraft

Airports: 143 total, 138 usable; 88 with permanent-surface runways; 2
with runways over 3,659 m; 35 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 42 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: well engineered, constructed, and operated;
28,000,000 telephones; stations–144 AM, 54 (over 1,800 repeaters) FM,
135 (over 1,300 repeaters) TV; 22 submarine cables; communication satellite
earth stations operating in INTELSAT 3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean,
INMARSAT, and EUTELSAT systems

Fórsaí cosanta
Brainsí: Arm, Cabhlach, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 14,721,704; 12,855,022 fit for military
seirbhíse; 430,782 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.4% of GDP, or $19 billion (1989 est.)
.On
Ivory Coast
(also known as Cote d'Ivoire)
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 322,460 km2; land area: 318,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: 3,110 km total; Burkina 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea
610 km, Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km

Coastline: 515 km

Éilimh muirí:

Scairbh ilchríochach: 200 m;

Breisithe Chrios Eacnamaíochta: 200 nm;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three
seasons–warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May),
hot and wet (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest

Natural resources: crude oil, diamonds, manganese, iron ore,
cobalt, bauxite, copper

Land use: 9% arable land; 4% bharra buana; 9% meadows and pastures;
26% forest and woodland; 52% other; Áirítear negl% uiscithe

Environment: coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; severe
dífhoraoisiú

PeopleSoft
Population: 12,478,024 (July 1990), growth rate 4.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 100 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 56 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Ivorian(s); adjective–Ivorian

Ethnic divisions: over 60 ethnic groups; most important are the Baoule
23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou 15%, Malinke 11%, and Agni; about 2 million foreign
Africans, mostly Burkinabe; about 130,000 to 330,000 non-Africans
(30,000 French and 100,000 to 300,000 Lebanese)

Religion: 63% indigenous, 25% Muslim, 12% Christian

Language: French (official), over 60 native dialects; Dioula most widely
spoken

Literacy: 42.7%

Labor force: 5,718,000; over 85% of population engaged in agriculture, for
estry,
livestock raising; about 11% of labor force are wage earners, nearly half in
agriculture and the remainder in government, industry, commerce, and
professions; 54% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: 20% of wage labor force

Rialtas
Long-form name: Republic of the Ivory Coast; note–the local official
name is Republique de Cote d'Ivoire

Type: republic; one-party presidential regime established 1960

Capital: Abidjan (capital city changed to Yamoussoukro in March 1983 but
not recognized by US)

Administrative divisions: 49 departments (departements,
singular–(departement); Abengourou, Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville,
Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou, Bongouanou, Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna,
Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa, Danane, Daoukro, Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue,
Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Lahou, Guiglo, Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota,
Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne, Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro, Sassandra,
Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou, Tanda, Tengrela, Tiassale, Touba,
Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro, Zuenoula

Independence: 7 August 1960 (from France)

Constitution: 3 November 1960

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 7 December

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Ceannairí:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Dr. Felix
HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY (since 27 November 1960)

Political parties and leaders: only party–Democratic Party of
the Ivory Coast (PDCI), Dr. Felix Houphouet-Boigny

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Faighteoir:
President–last held 27 October 1985 (next to be held October 1990);
results–President Felix Houphouet-Boigny was reelected without
opposition to his fifth consecutive five-year term;

National Assembly–last held 10 November 1985 (next to be held
10 November 1990);
results–PDCI is the only party;
seats–(175 total) PDCI 175

Communists: no Communist party; possibly some sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, EIB (associate),
Entente, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, Niger River Commission, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UN,
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Charles GOMIS; Seansaireachta ag
2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 797-0300;
US–Ambassador Kenneth BROWN; Embassy at 5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan
(mailing address is BP 1712, Abidjan 01); telephone Õ225å 32-09-79

Flag: three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green;
similar to the flag of Ireland which is longer and has the colors
reversed–green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of
Italy which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag
of France

Geilleagar
Overview: The Ivory Coast is among the world's largest producers and
exporters of coffee, cocoa beans, and palm-kernel oil. Consequently, the economy
is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for coffee and cocoa
and to weather conditions. Despite attempts by the government to diversify, the
economy is still largely dependent on agriculture and related industries. The
agricultural sector accounts for over one-third of GDP and about 80% of export
earnings and employs about 85% of the labor force. A collapse of world cocoa and
coffee prices in 1986 threw the economy into a recession, from which the country
had not recovered by 1989.

GDP: $10.0 billion, per capita $900; real growth rate – 6.4% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.5% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 14% (1985)

Budget: revenues $1.6 billion (1986); expenditures $2.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $504 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $2.2 billion (fob, 1988); commodities–cocoa 30%,
coffee 20%, tropical woods 11%, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, cotton;
partners–France, FRG, Netherlands, US, Belgium, Spain (1985)

Imports: $1.3 billion (fob, 1988); commodities–manufactured
goods and semifinished products 50%, consumer goods 40%, raw materials and
fuels 10%; partners–France, other EC, Nigeria, US, Japan (1985)

External debt: $14.7 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1987)

Electricity: 1,081,000 kW capacity; 2,440 million kWh produced,
210 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: foodstuffs, wood processing, oil refinery, automobile
assembly, textiles, fertilizer, beverage

Agriculture: most important sector, contributing one-third to GDP
and 80% to exports; cash crops include coffee, cocoa beans, timber,
bananas, palm kernels, rubber; food crops–corn, rice, manioc, sweet
potatoes; not selfsufficient in bread grain and dairy products

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis on a small scale for the
international drug trade

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $344 million; Iarthair
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $4.6 billion

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural–francs);
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1–287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987),
346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Bhliain fioscach: bliain féilire

Cumarsáid
Railroads: 660 km (Burkina border to Abidjan, 1.00-meter gauge,
single track, except 25 km Abidjan-Anyama section is double track)

Highways: 46,600 km total; 3,600 km bituminous and bituminous-treated
surface; 32,000 km gravel, crushed stone, laterite, and improved earth; 11,000
km unimproved

Inland waterways: 980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal
lagoons

Ports: Abidjan, San-Pedro

Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 71,945 GRT/
90,684 DWT; includes 5 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
1 chemical tanker

Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft, including multinationally owned
Air Afrique fleet

Airports: 49 total, 42 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways;
aon cheann le rúidbhealaí níos mó ná 3,659 m; 3 le rúidbhealaí 2.440-3.659 m; 16 with
Rúidbhealaí 1.220-2.439 m

Telecommunications: system above African average; consists of open-wire
lines and radio relay links; 87,700 telephones; stations–3 AM, 17 FM, 11 TV;
2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; 2 coaxial submarine cables

Fórsaí cosanta
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,874,925; 1,487,909 fit for military
seirbhíse; 141,193 males reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.9% of GDP (1987)
.On
Jamaica
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 10,990 km2; land area: 10,830 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Teorainneacha Talún: none

Coastline: 1,022 km

Éilimh muirí:

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Aeráide: trópaiceach; hot, humid; temperate interior

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Natural resources: bauxite, gypsum, limestone

Land use: 19% arable land; 6% permanent crops; 18% meadows and pastures;
28% forest and woodland; 29% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: subject to hurricanes (especially July to November);
dífhoraoisiú = Truailliú Uisce

Note: strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica
Channel, the main sea lanes for Panama Canal

PeopleSoft
Population: 2,441,396 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 21 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 10 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 16 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Jamaican(s); adjective–Jamaican

Ethnic divisions: 76.3% African, 15.1% Afro-European, 3.4% East Indian and
Afro-East Indian, 3.2% white, 1.2% Chinese and Afro-Chinese, 0.8% other

Religion: predominantly Protestant (including Anglican and Baptist), some
Roman Catholic, some spiritualist cults

Language: English, Creole

Literacy: 74%

Labor force: 728,700; 32% agriculture, 28% industry and commerce,
27% services, 13% government; shortage of technical and managerial personnel
(1984)

Organized labor: 25% of labor force (1989)

Rialtas
Long-form name: none

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Kingston

Administrative divisions: 14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston,
Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint
Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland

Independence: 6 August 1962 (from UK)

Constitution: 6 August 1962

Legal system: based on English common law; Níl TAR Ghlac ICJ éigeantach
Dlínse

National holiday: Independence Day (first Monday in August), 6 August 1990

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Ceannairí:
Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Governor General Sir Florizel A. GLASSPOLE (since 2 March 1973);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Michael MANLEY (since 9 February 1989)

Political parties and leaders: People's National Party (PNP), Michael
Manley; Jamaica Labor Party (JLP), Edward Seaga; Workers' Party of Jamaica
(WPJ), Trevor Munroe

Vótáil chomhchoiteann: Uilíoch ag aois 18

Faighteoir:
House of Representatives–last held 9 February 1989 (next to be held
by February 1994);
results–PNP 57%, JLP 43%;
seats–(60 total) PNP 45, JLP 15

Communists: Workers' Party of Jamaica (Marxist-Leninist)

Other political or pressure groups:
Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Keith JOHNSON; Seansaireachta ag
Suite 355, 1850 K Street NW, Washington DC 20006; telephone (202) 452-0660;
there are Jamaican Consulates General in Miami and New York;
US–Ambassador Glen HOLDEN; Embassy at 3rd Floor, Jamaica Mutual Life
Center, 2 Oxford Road, Kingston; telephone Õ809å 929-4850

Flag: diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles–green
(top and bottom) and black (hoist side and fly side)

Geilleagar
Overview: The economy is based on sugar, bauxite, and tourism.
In 1985 it suffered a setback with the closure of some facilities in the
bauxite and alumina industry, a major source of hard currency earnings. Since
1986 an economic recovery has been under way. In 1987 conditions began to
improve for the bauxite and alumina industry because of increases in world metal
prices. The recovery has also been supported by growth in the manufacturing and
tourism sectors. In September 1988, Hurricane Gilbert inflicted severe
damage on crops and the electric power system, a sharp but temporary
setback to the economy. By October 1989 the economic recovery from the
hurricane was largely complete and real growth was up about 3% for 1989.

GDP: $3.8 billion, per capita $1,529; real growth rate 3.0% (1989
est.)

An ráta boilscithe (praghsanna tomhaltóirí): 15% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 18.7% (1988)

Budget: revenues $1.1 billion; expenditures $1.5 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY88 est.)

Exports: $948 million (fob, 1989 est.);
commodities–bauxite, alumina, sugar, bananas;
partners–US 40%, UK, Canada, Trinidad and Tobago, Norway

Imports: $1.6 billion (cif, 1989 est.); commodities–petroleum,
machinery, food, consumer goods, construction goods; partners–US 46%,
UK, Venezuela, Canada, Japan, Trinidad and Tobago

External debt: $4.4 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 1,437,000 kW capacity; 2,390 million kWh produced,
960 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, bauxite mining, textiles, food processing,
light manufactures

Agriculture: accounts for about 9% of GDP, one-third of work force, and
17% of exports; commercial crops–sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, potatoes,
and vegetables; livestock and livestock products include poultry, goats, milk;
not self-sufficient in grain, meat, and dairy products

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of cannabis has decreased, with
production shifting from large to small plots and nurseries to evade
aerial detection and eradication

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $1.1 billion; Iarthair
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.2 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $27 million; Communist countries (1974-88),
$349 million

Currency: Jamaican dollar (plural–dollars);
1 Jamaican dollar (J$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Jamaican dollars (J$) per US$1–6.5013 (January 1990),
5.7446 (1989), 5.4886 (1988), 5.4867 (1987), 5.4778 (1986), 5.5586 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Cumarsáid
Railroads: 370 km, all 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track

Highways: 18,200 km total; 12,600 km paved, 3,200 km gravel, 2,400 km
improved earth

Pipelines: refined products, 10 km

Ports: Kingston, Montego Bay

Merchant marine: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,048 GRT/21,412
DWT; includes 1 cargo, 1 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 bulk

Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

Airports: 41 total, 25 usable; 14 with permanent-surface runways;
aon cheann le rúidbhealaí níos mó ná 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with
Rúidbhealaí 1.220-2.439 m

Telecommunications: fully automatic domestic telephone network;
127,000 telephones; stations–10 AM, 17 FM, 8 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations; 3 coaxial submarine cables

Fórsaí cosanta
Branches: Jamaica Defense Force (includes Coast Guard and Air Wing)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 620,400; 440,967 fit for military service;
no conscription; 27,014 reach minimum volunteer age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.1% of GDP (1987)
.On
Jan Mayen
(territory of Norway)
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 373 km2; land area: 373 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Teorainneacha Talún: none

Coastline: 124.1 km

Éilimh muirí:

Contiguous zone: 10 nm;

Scairbh ilchríochach: 200 méadar nó chun doimhneacht saothrú;

Crios iascaireachta Eisiach: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 4 nm

Disputes: Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims beween
Greenland and Jan Mayen

Climate: arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog

Terrain: volcanic island, partly covered by glaciers; Beerenberg is the
highest peak, with an elevation of 2,277 meters

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
féarach; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: barren volcanic island with some moss and grass;
volcanic activity resumed in 1970

Note: located 590 km north-northwest of Iceland between
the Greenland Sea and the Norwegian Sea north of the Arctic Circle

PeopleSoft
Population: no permanent inhabitants

Rialtas
Long-form name: none

Type: territory of Norway

Note: administered by a governor (sysselmann) resident in Longyearbyen
(Svalbard)

Geilleagar
Overview: Jan Mayen is a volcanic island with no exploitable
natural resources. Economic activity is limited to providing services
for employees of Norway's radio and meteorological stations located on
the island.

Electricity: 15,000 kW capacity; 40 million kWh produced,
NA kWh per capita (1989)

Cumarsáid
Airports: 1 with runway 1,220 to 2,439 m

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Telecommunications: radio and meteorological station

Fórsaí cosanta
Note: defense is the responsibility of Norway
.On
Japan
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 377,835 km2; land area: 374,744 km2; includes Bonin Islands
(Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto, Minami-jima, Okinotori-shima,
Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano Islands (Kazan-retto)

Comparative area: slightly smaller than California

Teorainneacha Talún: none

Coastline: 29,751 km

Éilimh muirí:

Crios iascaireachta Eisiach: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm (3 nm in international straits–La Perouse or
Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western channels of the Korea or
Tsushima Strait)

Disputes: Habomai Islands, Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan Islands
occupied by Soviet Union since 1945, claimed by Japan; Kuril Islands
administered by Soviet Union; Liancourt Rocks disputed with South Korea;
Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan

Climate: varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous

Natural resources: negligible mineral resources, fish

Land use: 13% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures;
67% forest and woodland; 18% other; includes 9% irrigated

Environment: many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic
occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; subject to tsunamis

Note: strategic location in northeast Asia

PeopleSoft
Population: 123,642,461 (July 1990), growth rate 0.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Ráta Glan imirce: 0 imircigh / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 76 years male, 82 years female (1990)

Ráta Iomlán torthúlachta: 1.6 leanaí a rugadh / bean (1990)

Nationality: noun–Japanese (sing., pl.); adjective–Japanese

Ethnic divisions: 99.4% Japanese, 0.6% other (mostly Korean)

Religion: most Japanese observe both Shinto and Buddhist rites; about 16%
belong to other faiths, including 0.8% Christian

Language: Japanese

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 63,330,000; 54% trade and services; 33% manufacturing,
mining, and construction; 7% agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 3% government
(1988)

Organized labor: about 29% of employed workers; 76.4% public service,
57.9% transportation and telecommunications, 48.7% mining, 33.7% manufacturing,
18.2% services, 9.3% wholesale, retail, and restaurant

Rialtas
Long-form name: none

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Tokyo

Administrative divisions: 47 prefectures (fuken, singular and plural);
Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma,
Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima,
Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki,
Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga,
Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama,
Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi

Independence: 660 BC, traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu;
3 May 1947, constitutional monarchy established

Constitution: 3 May 1947

Legal system: civil law system with English-American influence;
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933)

Executive branch: emperor, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Diet (Kokkai) consists of an upper house or
House of Councillors (Sangi-in) and a lower house or House of Representatives
(Shugi-in)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Ceannairí:
Chief of State–Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Toshiki KAIFU (since 9 August 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democratic Party (LDP),
Toshiki Kaifu, president; Japan Socialist Party (JSP), T. Doi, chairman;
Democratic Socialist Party (DSP), Keigo Ouchi, chairman; Japan
Communist Party (JCP), K. Miyamoto, Presidium chairman; Komeito (Clean
Government Party, CGP), Koshiro Ishida, chairman

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Faighteoir:
House of Councillors–last held on 23 July 1989 (next to be held
23 July 1992); torthaí-faoin gcéad de vóta ag páirtí NA;
seats–(252 total, 100 elected) LDP 109, JSP 67, CGP 21, JCP 14,
others 33;

House of Representatives–last held on 18 February 1990
(next to be held by February 1993);
torthaí-faoin gcéad de vóta ag páirtí NA;
seats–(512 total) LDP 275, JSP 136, CGP 45, JCP 16, JDSP 14,
other parties 5, independents 21; note–nine independents are expected
to join the LDP, five the JSP

Communists: about 470,000 registered Communist party members

Member of: ADB, ASPAC, CCC, Colombo Plan, DAC, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU,
IWC–International Whaling Commission, IWC–International Wheat Council, OECD,
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Nobuo MATSUNAGA; Seansaireachta ag
2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-6700;
there are Japanese Consulates General in Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta,
Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Kansas City (Missouri), Los Angeles,
New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Seattle, and Portland (Oregon),
and a Consulate in Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands);
US–Ambassador Michael H. ARMACOST; Embassy at 10-1, Akasaka 1-chome,
Minato-ku (107), Tokyo (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96503); telephone
Õ81å (3) 224-5000; there are US Consulates General in Naha, Osaka-Kobe, and
Sapporo and a Consulate in Fukuoka

Flag: white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays)
in the center

Geilleagar
Overview: Although Japan has few natural resources, since 1971 it has
become the world's third-largest industrial economy, ranking behind only the US
and the USSR. Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, and a
comparatively small defense allocation have helped Japan advance rapidly,
notably in high-technology fields. Industry, the most important sector of the
economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels.
Self-sufficent in rice, Japan must import 50% of its requirements for other
grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing
fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the total global catch. Overall
economic growth has been spectacular: a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5%
average in the 1970s and 1980s. In 1989 strong investment and
consumption spending helped maintain growth at nearly 5%. Inflation
remains low at 2.1% despite high oil prices and a somewhat weaker yen.
Japan continues to run a huge trade surplus, $60 billion in 1989, which
supports extensive investment in foreign properties.

GNP: $1,914.1 billion, per capita $15,600; real growth rate 4.8%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 2.3% (1989)

Budget: revenues $392 billion; expenditures $464 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY89)

Exports: $270 billion (fob, 1989); commodities–manufactures
97% (including machinery 38%, motor vehicles 17%, consumer electronics
10%); partners–US 34%, Southeast Asia 22%, Western Europe 21%, Communist
countries 5%, Middle East 5%

Imports: $210 billion (cif, 1989); commodities–manufactures
42%, fossil fuels 30%, foodstuffs 15%, nonfuel raw materials 13%;
partners–Southeast Asia 23%, US 23%, Middle East 15%, Western Europe 16%,
Communist countries 7%

Fiach seachtracha: $ NA

Industrial production: growth rate 9.0% (1989)

Electricity: 191,000,000 kW capacity; 700,000 million kWh produced,
5,680 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: metallurgy, engineering, electrical and electronic, textiles,
chemicals, automobiles, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for 3% of GNP; highly subsidized and protected
sector, with crop yields among highest in world; principal crops–rice, sugar
beets, vegetables, fruit; animal products include pork, poultry, dairy and eggs;
about 50% self-sufficient in food production; shortages of wheat, corn,
soybeans; world's largest fish catch of 11.8 million metric tons in 1987

Aid: donor–ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $57.5 billion

Currency: yen (plural–yen); 1 yen (Y) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: yen (Y) per US$1–145.09 (January 1990), 137.96 (1989),
128.15 (1988), 144.64 (1987), 168.52 (1986), 238.54 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Cumarsáid
Railroads: 27,327 km total; 2,012 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
and 25,315 km predominantly 1.067-meter narrow gauge; 5,724 km doubletrack and
multitrack sections, 9,038 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge electrified, 2,012
km 1.435-meter standard-gauge electrified (1987)

Highways: 1,098,900 km total; 718,700 km paved, 380,200 km gravel,
crushed stone, or unpaved; 3,900 km national expressways, 46,544 km national
highways, 43,907 km principal local roads, 86,930 km prefectural roads,
and 917,619 other (1987)

Inland waterways: about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal inland
seas

Pipelines: crude oil, 84 km; refined products, 322 km; natural gas,
1,800 km

Ports: Chiba, Muroran, Kitakyushu, Kobe, Tomakomai, Nagoya, Osaka, Tokyo,
Yokkaichi, Yokohama, Kawasaki, Niigata, Fushiki-Toyama, Shimizu, Himeji,
Wakayama-Shimozu, Shimonoseki, Tokuyama-Shimomatsu

Merchant marine: 1,088 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,597,688
GRT/36,655,266 DWT; includes 7 passenger, 57 short-sea passenger, 4 passenger
cargo, 108 cargo, 44 container, 27 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 135 refrigerated
cargo, 117 vehicle carrier, 237 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
21 chemical tanker, 42 liquefied gas, 12 combination ore/oil, 3 specialized
tanker, 272 bulk, 1 combination bulk, 1 multifunction large-load carrier

Civil air: 341 major transport aircraft

Airports: 165 total, 156 usable; 128 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 27 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 55 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international service;
64,000,000 telephones; stations–318 AM, 58 FM, 12,350 TV (196 major–1 kw or
greater); satellite earth stations–4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT; submarine cables to US (via Guam), Philippines, China, and USSR

Fórsaí cosanta
Branches: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (army), Japan Maritime
Self-Defense Force (navy), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (air force), Maritime
Safety Agency (coast guard)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 32,181,866; 27,695,890 fit for military
seirbhíse; 1,004,052 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.0% of GNP at market prices (1989 est.)
.On
Jarvis Island
(Críoch de na Stáit Aontaithe)
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 4.5 km2; land area: 4.5 km2

Comparative area: about 7.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Teorainneacha Talún: none

Coastline: 8 km

Éilimh muirí:

Crios tadhlach: 12 nm;

Scairbh ilchríochach: 200 m;

Breisithe Chrios Eacnamaíochta: 200 nm;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Aeráide: trópaiceach; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing
shrubs; lacks fresh water; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging
habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife; feral cats

Note: 2,090 km south of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean, just south
of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and the Cook Islands

PeopleSoft
Population: uninhabited

Note: Millersville settlement on western side of island occasionally used
as a weather station from 1935 until World War II, when it was abandoned;
reoccupied in 1957 during the International Geophysical Year by scientists who
left in 1958; public entry is by special-use permit only and generally
restricted to scientists and educators

Rialtas
Long-form name: none (territory of the US)

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish
and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge System

Geilleagar
Overview: no economic activity

Cumarsáid
Ports: none; offshore anchorage only–one boat landing area in the
middle of the west coast and another near the southwest corner of the island

Note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

Fórsaí cosanta
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually
by the US Coast Guard
.On
Jersey
(Spleáchas coróin na Breataine)
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 117 km2; land area: 117 km2

Comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Teorainneacha Talún: none

Coastline: 70 km

Éilimh muirí:

Scairbh ilchríochach: 200 méadar nó chun doimhneacht saothrú;

Crios iascaireachta Eisiach: 200 nm;

Farraige Críche: 3 nm

Climate: temperate; mild winters and cool summers

Terrain: gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast

Natural resources: agricultural land

Úsáid talún: NA% thalamh arúil; NA% bharra buana; NA% móinéir agus féarach;
NA% foraoise agus coillearnaí; NA% eile; about 58% of land under cultivation

Environment: about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier

Note: largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; 27 km
from France

PeopleSoft
Population: 83,609 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Ráta breithe: 12 breitheanna / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 7 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Ráta mortlaíochta naíonán: 6 básanna / 1,000 breitheanna beo (1990)

Ionchas saoil ag breithe: 72 bliain fireann, 78 bliain baineann (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1990)

Náisiúntacht: ainmfhocal-Channel Oileánach (í); aidiacht-Channel Oileánach

Rannáin Eitneach: Ríocht Aontaithe agus ghinealach Normannach-Fraincis

Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New Church,
Methodist, Presbyterian

Language: English and French (official), with the Norman-French dialect
spoken in country districts

Literacy: NA%, but probably high

Lucht saothair: NA

Organized labor: none

Rialtas
Long-form name: Bailiwick of Jersey

Cineál: Breataine Crown Spleáchas

Capital: Saint Helier

Rannáin Riaracháin: none (spleáchas choróin na Breataine)

Neamhspleáchas: none (spleáchas choróin na Breataine)

Bunreacht: neamhscríofa; partly statutes, partly common law and
practice

Legal system: English law and local statute

Saoire náisiúnta: Lá Saoirse, 9 Bealtaine (1945)

Executive branch: British monarch, lieutenant governor, bailiff

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the States

An brainse Breithiúnach: Cúirt Ríoga

Ceannairí:
Ceann Stáit Banríon ELIZABETH II (ó 6 Feabhra, 1952);

Head of Government–Lieutenant Governor Adm. Sir William PILLAR
(since NA 1985); Bailiff Peter CRILL (since NA)

Páirtithe agus ceannairí polaitiúla: none; gach neamhspleácha

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Faighteoir:
Assembly of the States–last held NA (next to be held NA);
torthaí-faoin gcéad de vóta NA;
seats–(56 total, 52 elected) 52 independents

Communists: probably none

Ionadaíocht taidhleoireachta: none (spleáchas choróin na Breataine)

Flag: white with the diagonal red cross of St. Patrick (patron saint
of Ireland) extending to the corners of the flag

Geilleagar
Overview: The economy is based largely on financial services, agriculture,
and tourism. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and especially flowers are
important export crops, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of dairy
cattle is known worldwide and represents an important export earner. Milk
products go to the UK and other EC countries. In 1986 the finance sector
overtook tourism as the main contributor to GDP, accounting for 40% of the
island's output. In recent years the government has encouraged light industry
to locate in Jersey, with the result that an electronics industry has developed
alongside the traditional manufacturing of knitwear. All raw material
and energy requirements are imported, as well as a large share of Jersey's food
needs.

OTI: $ NA, per capita $ NA; real growth rate 8% (1987 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (1988 est.)

Ráta Dífhostaíochta: NA%

Budget: revenues $308.0 million; expenditures $284.4 million, including
Caiteachas caipitil de NA (1985)

Onnmhairí: $ NA; commodities–light industrial and electrical goods,
foodstuffs, textiles; partners–UK

Allmhairí: $ NA; commodities–machinery and transport equipment,
manufactured goods, foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals; partners–UK

Fiach seachtracha: $ NA

Tháirgeadh tionsclaíoch: ráta fáis NA%

Electricity: 50,000 kW standby capacity (1989); power supplied by France

Industries: tourism, banking and finance, dairy

Agriculture: potatoes, cauliflowers, tomatoes; dairy and cattle farming

Cúnamh: none

Currency: Jersey pound (plural–pounds); 1 Jersey pound (LJ) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Jersey pounds (LJ) per US$1–0.6055 (January 1990),
0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985);
the Jersey pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Cumarsáid
Ports: Saint Helier, Gorey, St. Aubin

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m (St. Peter)

Telecommunications: 63,700 telephones; stations–1 AM, no FM, 1
TV; 3 submarine cables

Fórsaí cosanta
Tabhair faoi deara: Is é cosaint an fhreagracht ar an Ríocht Aontaithe
.On
Johnston Atoll
(Críoch de na Stáit Aontaithe)
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 2.8 km2; land area: 2.8 km2

Comparative area: about 4.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Teorainneacha Talún: none

Coastline: 10 km

Éilimh muirí:

Crios tadhlach: 12 nm;

Scairbh ilchríochach: 200 m;

Breisithe Chrios Eacnamaíochta: 200 nm;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds
with little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly flat with a maximum elevation of 4 meters

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until about 1890)

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: some low-growing vegetation

Note: strategic location 1,328 km west-southwest of Honolulu in the North
Pacific Ocean, about one-third of the way between Hawaii and the Marshall
Islands; Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands; North Island
(Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral
dredging; closed to the public; former nuclear weapons test site

PeopleSoft
Population: 1,203 (December 1989); all US government personnel and
contractors

Rialtas
Long-form name: none (territory of the US)

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Defense
Nuclear Agency (DNA) and managed cooperatively by DNA and the Fish and Wildlife
Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife
Refuge system

Ionadaíocht taidhleoireachta: none (de chríoch an Stáit Aontaithe)

Flag: the flag of the US is used

Geilleagar
Overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services to
US military personnel and contractors located on the island. All
food and manufactured goods must be imported.

Cumarsáid
Ports: Johnston Island

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 2,743 m

Telecommunications: excellent system including 60-channel submarine
cable, Autodin/SRT terminal, digital telephone switch, Military
Affiliated Radio System (MARS station), and a (receive only) commercial
satellite television system

Note: US Coast Guard operates a LORAN transmitting station

Fórsaí cosanta
Tabhair faoi deara: Is é cosaint an fhreagracht ar an Poist
.On
Jordan
(see separate West Bank entry)
Note: The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended with
Israel in control of the West Bank. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords
and reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace initiative, the
final status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, their relationship with their
neighbors, and a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated
among the concerned parties. The Camp David Accords further specify that these
negotiations will resolve the location of the respective boundaries. Pending the
completion of this process, it is US policy that the final status of the West
Bank and Gaza Strip has yet to be determined.

Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 91,880 km2; land area: 91,540 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: 1,586 km total; Iraq 134 km, Israel 238 km,
Saudi Arabia 742 km, Syria 375 km, West Bank 97 km

Coastline: 26 km

Éilimh muirí:

Farraige Críche: 3 nm

Disputes: differences with Israel over the location of the
1949 Armistice Line which separates the two countries

Climate: mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Terrain: mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west;
Great Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River

Natural resources: phosphates, potash, shale oil

Land use: 4% arable land; 0.5% permanent crops; 1% meadows
and pastures; 0.5% forest and woodland; 94% other; includes 0.5% irrigated

Environment: lack of natural water resources; dífhoraoisiú =
overgrazing; creimeadh ithreach; desertification

PeopleSoft
Population: 3,064,508 (July 1990), growth rate 3.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 42 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Ráta Glan imirce: 0 imircigh / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 55 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 71 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Jordanian(s); adjective–Jordanian

Ethnic divisions: 98% Arab, 1% Circassian, 1% Armenian

Religion: 92% Sunni Muslim, 8% Christian

Language: Arabic (official); English widely understood among upper and
middle classes

Literacy: 71% (est.)

Labor force: 572,000 (1988); 20% agriculture, 20%
manufacturing and mining (1987 est.)

Organized labor: about 10% of labor force

Note: 1.5-1.7 million Palestinians live on the East Bank (55-60%
of the population), most are Jordanian citizens

Rialtas
Long-form name: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Amman

Administrative divisions: 8 governorates (muhafazat,
singular–muhafazah); Al Balqa, Al Karak, Al Mafraq, Amman,
At Tafilah, Az Zarqa, Irbid, Maan

Independence: 25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British
administration; formerly Trans-Jordan)

Constitution: 8 January 1952

Legal system: based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial review
of legislative acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 May (1946)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Majlis al Umma)
consists of an upper house or House of Notables (Majlis al-Ayaan) and a
lower house or House of Representatives (Majlis al-Nuwwab); note–the House
of Representatives was dissolved by King Hussein on 30 July 1988 as part of
Jordanian disengagement from the West Bank and in November 1989 the
first parliamentary elections in 22 years were held, with no seats going
to Palestinians on the West Bank

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Ceannairí:
Chief of State–King HUSSEIN Ibn Talal I (since 11 August 1952);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Mudar BADRAN (since 4 December
1989)

Páirtithe agus ceannairí polaitiúla: none; after 1989 parliamentary
elections, King Hussein promised to allow the formation of political
parties

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Faighteoir:
House of Representatives–last held 8 November 1989 (next to be
held NA); torthaí-faoin gcéad de vóta NA;
seats–(80 total) percent of vote NA

Communists: party actively repressed, membership less than 500 (est.)

Member of: ACC, Arab League, CCC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Hussein A. HAMMAMI;
Chancery at 3504 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 966-2664;
US–Ambassador Roscoe S. SUDDARTH; Embassy on Jebel Amman, Amman (mailing
address is PO Box 354, Amman, or APO New York 09892);
telephone Õ962å (6) 644371 through 644376

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), white, and green with a
red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a small white
seven-pointed star; the seven points on the star represent the seven fundamental
laws of the Koran

Geilleagar
Overview: Jordan was a secondary beneficiary of the oil boom of
the late 1970s and early 1980s, when its GNP growth averaged 10-12%. Recent
years, however, have witnessed a sharp reduction in cash aid from Arab
oil-producing countries and in worker remittances, with growth averaging
1-2%. Imports–mainly oil, capital goods, consumer durables, and
foodstuffs–have been outstripping exports by roughly $2 billion annually,
the difference being made up by aid, remittances, and borrowing. In 1989
the government pursued policies to encourage private investment, curb
imports of luxury goods, promote exports, reduce the budget deficit, and, in
general, reinvigorate economic growth. Success will depend largely on
exogenous forces, such as the absence of drought and a pickup in outside
support. Down the road, the completion of the proposed Unity Dam on the
Yarmuk is vital to meet rapidly growing requirements for water.

GNP: $5.2 billion, per capita $1,760; real growth rate 0% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9-10% (December 1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $0.92 billion; expenditures $1.6 billion, including
capital expenditures of $540 million (1989 est.)

Exports: $0.910 billion (fob, 1989 est.); commodities–fruits and
vegetables, phosphates, fertilizers;
partners–Iraq, Saudi Arabia, India, Kuwait, Japan, China,
Yugoslavia, Indonesia

Imports: $1.7 billion (cif, 1989 est.); commodities–crude oil,
textiles, capital goods, motor vehicles, foodstuffs;
partners–EC, US, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Turkey, Romania, China,
Taiwan

External debt: $8.3 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate – 7.8% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 981,000 kW capacity; 3,500 million kWh produced,
1,180 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: phosphate mining, petroleum refining, cement, potash,
light manufacturing

Agriculture: accounts for only 5% of GDP; principal products are wheat,
barley, citrus fruit, tomatoes, melons, olives; livestock–sheep, goats,
poultry; large net importer of food

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $1.7 billion; Iarthair
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.2 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.5 billion; Tíortha cumannach (1970-1988);
$44 million

Currency: Jordanian dinar (plural–dinars);
1 Jordanian dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1–0.6557 (January 1990),
0.5704 (1989), 0.3715 (1988), 0.3387 (1987), 0.3499 (1986), 0.3940 (1985)

Bhliain fioscach: bliain féilire

Cumarsáid
Railroads: 619 km 1.050-meter gauge, single track

Highways: 7,500 km; 5,500 km asphalt, 2,000 km gravel and crushed stone

Pipelines: crude oil, 209 km

Ports: Al Aqabah

Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 32,635 GRT/44,618
DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 2 bulk cargo

Civil air: 19 major transport aircraft

Airports: 19 total, 16 usable; 14 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
aon cheann le rúidbhealaí 1.220-2.439 m

Telecommunications: adequate system of radio relay, cable, and radio;
81,500 telephones; stations–4 AM, 3 FM, 24 TV; satellite earth stations–1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT, 1 domestic TV
receive-only; coaxial cable and radio relay to Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Syria;
radio relay to Lebanon is inactive; a microwave network linking Syria, Egypt,
Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Jordan

Fórsaí cosanta
Branches: Jordan Arab Army, Royal Jordanian Air Force, Royal Jordanian
Coast Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 726,736; 519,972 fit for military service;
38,730 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 11% of GNP, or $570 million (1990 est.)
.On
Juan de Nova Island
(French possession)
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 4.4 km2; land area: 4.4 km2

Comparative area: about 7.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Teorainneacha Talún: none

Coastline: 24.1 km

Éilimh muirí:

Crios tadhlach: 12 nm;

Scairbh ilchríochach: 200 méadar nó chun doimhneacht saothrú;

Breisithe Chrios Eacnamaíochta: 200 nm;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Disputes: claimed by Madagascar

Climate: tropical

Terrain: undetermined

Natural resources: guano deposits and other fertilizers

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
féarach; 90% forest and woodland; 10% other

Environment: subject to periodic cyclones; wildlife sanctuary

Note: located in the central Mozambique Channel about halfway
between Africa and Madagascar

PeopleSoft
Population: uninhabited

Rialtas
Long-form name: none

Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic
Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion

Geilleagar
Overview: no economic activity

Cumarsáid
Railroads: short line going to a jetty

Airports: 1 with nonpermanent-surface runway less than 1,220 m

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Note: one weather station

Fórsaí cosanta
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
.On
Kenya
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 582,650 km2; land area: 569,250 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Nevada

Land boundaries: 3,477 km total; Ethiopia 861 km, Somalia 682 km,
Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km

Coastline: 536 km

Éilimh muirí:

Breisithe Chrios Eacnamaíochta: 200 nm;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Disputes: international boundary and Administrative Boundary with Sudan;
possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic Somalis

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

Terrain: low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift
Valley; fertile plateau in west

Natural resources: gold, limestone, diotomite, salt barytes, magnesite,
feldspar, sapphires, fluorspar, garnets, wildlife

Land use: 3% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 7% meadows and pastures;
4% forest and woodland; 85% other; Áirítear negl% uiscithe

Environment: unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife
of scientific and economic value; dífhoraoisiú = creimeadh ithreach; desertification;
glaciers on Mt. Kenya

Note: Kenyan Highlands one of the most successful agricultural
production regions in Africa

PeopleSoft
Population: 24,639,261 (July 1990), growth rate 3.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Ráta Glan imirce: 0 imircigh / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 60 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Kenyan(s); adjective–Kenyan

Ethnic divisions: 21% Kikuyu, 14% Luhya, 13% Luo, 11% Kalenjin, 11% Kamba,
6% Kisii, 6% Meru, 1% Asian, European, and Arab

Religion: 38% Protestant, 28% Roman Catholic, 26% indigenous beliefs,
6% Muslim

Language: English and Swahili (official); numerous indigenous languages

Literacy: 59.2%

Labor force: 9,003,000; 78% agriculture, 22% nonagriculture
(1987 est.)

Organized labor: 390,000 (est.)

Rialtas
Long-form name: Republic of Kenya

Cineál: Poblacht

Capital: Nairobi

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast,
Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North-Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western

Independence: 12 December 1963 (from UK; formerly British East Africa)

Constitution: 12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964;
reissued with amendments 1979, 1983, 1986, and 1988

Legal system: based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law;
judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations; constitutional amendment in 1982 made Kenya a de jure one-party
state

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 December (1963)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Ceannairí:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Daniel Teroitich
arap MOI (since 14 October 1978); Vice President George SAITOTI
(since 10 May 1989)

Political parties and leaders: only party–Kenya African National
Union (KANU), Daniel T. arap Moi, president

Vótáil chomhchoiteann: Uilíoch ag aois 18

Faighteoir:
President–last held on 21 March 1988 (next to be held
February 1993);
results–President Daniel T. arap Moi was reelected;

National Assembly–last held on 21 March 1988
(next to be held March 1993); results–KANU is the only party;
seats–(202 total, 188 elected) KANU 200

Communists: may be a few Communists and sympathizers

Other political or pressure groups: labor unions; exile
opposition–Mwakenya and other groups

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU,
IWC–International Wheat Council, NAM, OAU, UN, UNDP, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Denis Daudi AFANDE; Seansaireachta ag
2249 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-6101; there are
Kenyan Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York;
US–Ambassador Smith HEMPSTONE; Embassy at the corner of Moi Avenue
and Haile Selassie Avenue, Nairobi (mailing address is PO Box 30137,
Nairobi or APO New York 09675); telephone Õ254å (2) 334141; there is a
US Consulate in Mombasa

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red
band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed spears is
superimposed at the center

Geilleagar
Overview: A serious underlying economic problem is Kenya's 3.8% annual
population growth rate–one of the highest in the world. In the
meantime, GDP growth in the near term has kept slightly ahead of
population–annually averaging 5.2% in the 1986-88 period. Undependable
weather conditions and a shortage of arable land hamper long-term
growth in agriculture, the leading economic sector.

GDP: $8.5 billion, per capita $360; real growth rate 4.9% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.3% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%, but there is a high level of unemployment
and underemployment

Budget: revenues $2.3 billion; expenditures $2.6 billion, including
capital expenditures of $0.71 billion (FY87)

Exports: $1.0 billion (fob, 1988); commodities–coffee 20%,
tea 18%, manufactures 15%, petroleum products 10% (1987);
partners–Western Europe 45%, Africa 22%, Far East 10%, US 4%, Middle East
3% (1987)

Imports: $1.8 billion (fob, 1988); commodities–machinery
and transportation equipment 36%, raw materials 33%, fuels and lubricants 20%,
food and consumer goods 11% (1987);
partners–Western Europe 49%, Far East 20%, Middle East 19%, US 7% (1987)

External debt: $6.2 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.8% (1987 est.)

Electricity: 587,000 kW capacity; 2,250 million kWh produced,
90 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries,
textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural processing, oil refining,
cement, tourism

Agriculture: most important sector, accounting for 30% of GDP,
about 80% of the work force, and over 50% of exports; cash
crops–coffee, tea, sisal, pineapple; food products–corn, wheat,
sugarcane, fruit, vegetables, dairy products; food output not keeping
pace with population growth

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis used mostly for
domestic consumption; widespread cultivation of cannabis and qat on
small plots; transit country for heroin and methaqualone en route
from Southwest Asia to West Africa, Western Europe, and the US

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $771 million; Iarthair
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $6.0 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $74 million; Tíortha cumannach (1970-1988);
$83 million

Currency: Kenyan shilling (plural–shillings);
1 Kenyan shilling (KSh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Kenyan shillings (KSh) per US$1–21.749 (December 1989),
20.572 (1989), 17.747 (1988), 16.454 (1987), 16.226 (1986), 16.432 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Cumarsáid
Railroads: 2,040 km 1.000-meter gauge

Highways: 64,590 km total; 7,000 km paved, 4,150 km gravel, remainder
improved earth

Inland waterways: part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of
Kenya; principal inland port is at Kisumu

Pipelines: refined products, 483 km

Ports: Mombasa, Lamu

Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

Airports: 247 total, 211 usable; 18 with permanent-surface runways; 2
with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 45 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: in top group of African systems; consists of radio
relay links, open-wire lines, and radiocommunication stations;
260,000 telephones; stations–11 AM, 4 FM, 4 TV; satellite earth stations–1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTLESAT

Fórsaí cosanta
Branches: Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, Air Force; paramilitary General
Service Unit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,240,551; 3,235,557 fit for military
seirbhíse; no conscription

Defense expenditures: 1.0% of GDP, or $100 million (1989 est.)
.On
Kingman Reef
(Críoch de na Stáit Aontaithe)
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 1 km2; land area: 1 km2

Comparative area: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Teorainneacha Talún: none

Coastline: 3 km

Éilimh muirí:

Crios tadhlach: 12 nm;

Scairbh ilchríochach: 200 m;

Breisithe Chrios Eacnamaíochta: 200 nm;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds

Terrain: low and nearly level with a maximum elevation of about 1 meter

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; wet or awash
most of the time

Note: located 1,600 km south-southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific
Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and American Samoa; maximum elevation of
about 1 meter makes this a navigational hazard; closed to the public

PeopleSoft
Population: uninhabited

Rialtas
Long-form name: none

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Navy

Geilleagar
Overview: no economic activity

Cumarsáid
Airports: lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii and
American Samoa by Pan American Airways for flying boats in 1937 and 1938

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Fórsaí cosanta
Tabhair faoi deara: Is é cosaint an fhreagracht ar an Poist
.On
Kiribati
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 717 km2; land area: 717 km2; includes three island
groups–Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands

Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC

Teorainneacha Talún: none

Coastline: 1,143 km

Éilimh muirí:

Crios iascaireachta Eisiach: 200 nm;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Aeráide: trópaiceach; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs

Natural resources: phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)

Land use: NEGL% arable land; 51% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
féarach; 3% forest and woodland; 46% other

Environment: typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to March;
20 of the 33 islands are inhabited

Note: Banaba or Ocean Island is one of the three great phosphate rock
islands in the Pacific (the others are Makatea in French Polynesia and Nauru)

PeopleSoft
Population: 70,012 (July 1990), growth rate 1.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 65 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 57 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Kiribatian(s); adjective–Kiribati

Ethnic divisions: Micronesian

Religion: 48% Roman Catholic, 45% Protestant (Congregational),
some Seventh-Day Adventist and Baha'i

Language: English (official), Gilbertese

Litearthacht: 90%

Labor force: 7,870 economically active (1985 est.)

Organized labor: Kiribati Trades Union Congress–2,500 members

Rialtas
Long-form name: Republic of Kiribati

Cineál: Poblacht

Capital: Tarawa

Administrative divisions: 3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix
Islands; note–a new administrative structure of 6 districts (Banaba, Central
Gilberts, Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern Gilberts, Tarawa) may have
been changed to 20 island councils (one for each of the inhabited islands) named
Abaiang, Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae, Banaba, Beru, Butaritari, Kiritimati, Kuria,
Maiana, Makin, Marakei, Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa, Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana,
Tarawa, Teraina

Independence: 12 July 1979 (from UK; formerly Gilbert Islands)

Constitution: 12 July 1979

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1979)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (Maneaba Ni Maungatabu)

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Ceannairí:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Ieremia T. TABAI
(since 12 July 1979); Vice President Teatao TEANNAKI (since 20 July 1979)

Political parties and leaders: Gilbertese National Party; Christian
Democratic Party, Teburoro Tito, secretary; essentially not organized
on basis of political parties

Vótáil chomhchoiteann: Uilíoch ag aois 18

Faighteoir:
President–last held on 12 May 1987 (next to be held May 1991);
results–Ieremia T. Tabai 50.1%, Tebruroro Tito 42.7%, Tetao
Tannaki 7.2%;

National Assembly–last held on 19 March l987 (next to be held
March 1991); torthaí-faoin gcéad de vóta ag páirtí NA;
seats–(40 total; 39 elected) percent of seats by party NA

Member of: ACP, ADB, Commonwealth, ESCAP (associate member), GATT (de
facto), ICAO, IMF, SPF, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant) lives in Tarawa (Kiribati);
US–none

Flag: the upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird flying over a
yellow rising sun and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy white
stripes to represent the ocean

Geilleagar
Overview: The country has few national resources. Phosphate deposits were
exhausted at the time of independence in 1979. Copra and fish now represent
the bulk of production and exports. The economy has fluctuated widely in
recent years. Real GDP declined about 8% in 1987, as the fish catch fell
sharply to only one-fourth the level of 1986 and copra production was hampered
by repeated rains. Output rebounded strongly in 1988, with real GDP growing
by 17%. The upturn in economic growth came from an increase in copra production
and a good fish catch. Following the strong surge in output in 1988, GDP
remained about the same in 1989.

GDP: $34 million, per capita $500; real growth rate 0% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.1% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 2% (1985); considerable underemployment

Budget: revenues $22.0 million; expenditures $12.7 million, including
capital expenditures of $9.7 million (1988)

Exports: $5.1 million (fob, 1988); commodities–fish 55%,
copra 42%; partners–EC 20%, Marshall Islands 12%, US 8%, American
Samoa 4% (1985)

Imports: $21.5 million (cif, 1988); commodities–foodstuffs,
fuel, transportation equipment; partners–Australia 39%, Japan 21%,
NZ 6%, UK 6%, US 3% (1985)

External debt: $2.0 million (December 1987 est.)

Tháirgeadh tionsclaíoch: ráta fáis NA%

Electricity: 5,000 kW capacity; 13 million kWh produced,
190 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing, handicrafts

Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP (including fishing); copra and fish
contribute 95% to exports; subsistence farming predominates; food crops–taro,
breadfruit, sweet potatoes, vegetables; not self-sufficient in food

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $245 million

Currency: Australian dollar (plural–dollars);
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1–1.2784 (January 1990),
1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

Fiscal year: NA

Cumarsáid
Highways: 640 km of motorable roads

Inland waterways: small network of canals, totaling 5 km, in Line Islands

Ports: Banaba and Betio (Tarawa)

Civil air: 2 Trislanders; no major transport aircraft

Airports: 22 total; 21 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 1,400 telephones; stations–1 AM, no FM, no TV;
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Fórsaí cosanta
Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
.On
Korea, North
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 120,540 km2; land area: 120,410 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Mississippi

Land boundaries: 1,671 km total; China 1,416 km, South Korea 238 km,
USSR 17 km

Coastline: 2,495 km

Éilimh muirí:

Breisithe Chrios Eacnamaíochta: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm;

Military boundary line: 50 nm (all foreign vessels and aircraft
without permission are banned)

Disputes: short section of boundary with China is indefinite;
Demarcation Line with South Korea

Climate: temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer

Terrain: mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys;
coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east

Natural resources: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite,
iron ore, copper, gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower

Land use: 18% arable land; 1% permanent crops; NEGL% meadows and
féarach; 74% forest and woodland; 7% other; includes 9% irrigated

Environment: mountainous interior is isolated, nearly inaccessible,
and sparsely populated; late spring droughts often followed by severe flooding

Note: strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and USSR

PeopleSoft
Population: 21,292,649 (July 1990), growth rate 1.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Ráta Glan imirce: 0 imircigh / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 27 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 75 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Korean(s); adjective–Korean

Ethnic divisions: racially homogeneous

Religion: Buddhism and Confucianism; religious activities now almost
nonexistent

Language: Korean

Literacy: 95% (est.)

Labor force: 9,615,000; 36% agricultural, 64% nonagricultural; shortage
of skilled and unskilled labor (mid-1987 est.)

Organized labor: 1,600,000 members; single-trade union system coordinated
by the General Federation of Trade Unions of Korea under the Central Committee

Rialtas
Long-form name: Democratic People's Republic of Korea; abbreviated DPRK

Type: Communist state; one-man rule

Capital: P'yongyang

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and
3 special cities* (jikhalsi, singular and plural); Chagang-do,
Hamgyong-namdo, Hamgyong-bukto, Hwanghae-namdo, Hwanghae-bukto,
Kaesong-si*, Kangwon-do, Namp'o-si*, P'yongan-bukto,
P'yongan-namdo, P'yongyang-si*, Yanggang-do

Independence: 9 September 1948

Constitution: adopted 1948, revised 27 December 1972

Legal system: based on German civil law system with Japanese influences
and Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 September (1948)

Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, premier, nine vice
premiers, State Administration Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme People's Assembly (Choe Ko In
Min Hoe Ui)

Judicial branch: Central Court

Ceannairí:
Chief of State–President KIM Il-song (since 28 December 1972);
Designated Successor KIM Chong-Il (son of President, born 16 February 1942);

Head of Government–Premier YON Hyong-muk (since NA December 1988)

Political parties and leaders: only party–Korean Workers' Party
(KWP); Kim Il-song, General Secretary, and his son, Kim Chong-Il,
Secretary, Central Committee

Suffrage: universal at age 17

Faighteoir:
President–last held 29 December 1986 (next to be held December
1990);
results–President Kim Il Song was reelected without opposition;

Supreme People's Assembly–last held on 2 November 1986 (next
to be held November 1990, but the constitutional provision for elections
every four years is not always followed);
results–KWP is the only party;
seats–(655 total) KWP 655; the KWP approves a single list of candidates
who are elected without opposition

Communists: KWP claims membership of about 2 million, or about one-tenth
of population

Member of: ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, IMO, IPU, ITU, NAM,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WTO, UNIDO, WMO; official
observer status at UN

Diplomatic representation: none

Flag: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue;
the red band is edged in white; on the hoist side of the red band is a white
disk with a red five-pointed star

Geilleagar
Overview: More than 90% of this command economy is socialized;
agricultural land is collectivized; and state-owned industry produces 95% of
manufactured goods. State control of economic affairs is unusually tight
even for a Communist country because of the small size and homogeneity of
the society and the strict one-man rule of Kim. Economic growth during
the period 1984-89 has averaged approximately 3%. Abundant natural resources
and hydropower form the basis of industrial development. Output of the
extractive industries includes coal, iron ore, magnesite, graphite, copper,
zinc, lead, and precious metals. Manufacturing emphasis is centered on heavy
industry, with light industry lagging far behind. The use of high-yielding
seed varieties, expansion of irrigation, and the heavy use of fertilizers
have enabled North Korea to become largely self-sufficient in food production.
North Korea, however, is far behind South Korea in economic development and
living standards.

GNP: $28 billion, per capita $1,240; real growth rate 3% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: officially none

Budget: revenues $15.6 billion; expenditures $15.6 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

Exports: $2.4 billion (fob, 1988); commodities–minerals,
metallurgical products, agricultural products, manufactures;
partners–USSR, China, Japan, FRG, Hong Kong, Singapore

Imports: $3.1 billion (fob, 1988); commodities–petroleum,
machinery and equipment, coking coal, grain;
partners–USSR, Japan, China, FRG, Hong Kong, Singapore

External debt: $2.5 billion hard currency (1989)

Tháirgeadh tionsclaíoch: ráta fáis NA%

Electricity: 6,440,000 kW capacity; 40,250 million kWh produced,
1,740 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: machine building, military products, electric power,
chemicals, mining, metallurgy, textiles, food processing

Agriculture: accounts for about 25% of GNP and 36% of work force;
principal crops–rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses; livestock and livestock
products–cattle, hogs, pork, eggs; not self-sufficient in grain; fish catch
estimated at 1.7 million metric tons in 1987

Aid: Communist countries (1970-88), $1.3 billion

Currency: North Korean won (plural–won);
1 North Korean won (Wn) = 100 chon

Exchange rates: North Korean won (Wn) per US$1–2.3 (December 1989),
2.13 (December 1988), 0.94 (March 1987), NA (1986), NA (1985)

Bhliain fioscach: bliain féilire

Cumarsáid
Railroads: 4,535 km total operating in 1980; 3,870 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge, 665 km 0.762-meter narrow gauge, 159 km double track; 3,175 km
electrified; government owned

Highways: about 20,280 km (1980); 98.5% gravel, crushed stone, or earth
surface; 1.5% concrete or bituminous

Inland waterways: 2,253 km; mostly navigable by small craft only

Pipelines: crude oil, 37 km

Ports: Ch'ongjin, Haeju, Hungnam, Namp'o, Wonsan, Songnim, Najin

Merchant marine: 65 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 437,103
GRT/663,835 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger-cargo,
56 cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 bulk, 1 combination
bulk

Airports: 50 total, 50 usable; about 30 with permanent-surface
runways; fewer than 5 with runways over 3,659 m; 20 with runways
2,440-3,659 m; 30 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations–18 AM, no FM, 11 TV; 200,000 TV sets;
3,500,000 radio receivers; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Fórsaí cosanta
Branches: Ministry of People's Armed Forces (consists of the army, navy,
and air force)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 6,054,774; 3,699,088 fit for military
seirbhíse; 223,087 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 22% of GNP (1987)
.On
Korea, South
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 98,480 km2; land area: 98,190 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Indiana

Land boundary: 238 km with North Korea

Coastline: 2,413 km

Éilimh muirí:

Territorial sea: 12 nm (3 nm in the Korea Strait)

Disputes: Demarcation Line with North Korea; Liancourt Rocks claimed
by Japan

Climate: temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter

Terrain: mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west
and south

Natural resources: coal, tungsten, graphite, molybdenum, lead,
hydropower

Land use: 21% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures;
67% forest and woodland; 10% other; includes 12% irrigated

Environment: occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods; earthquakes
in southwest; air pollution in large cities

Notes: strategic location along the Korea Strait, Sea of Japan, and
Yellow Sea

PeopleSoft
Population: 43,045,098 (July 1990), growth rate 0.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 1 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 73 years female (1990)

Ráta Iomlán torthúlachta: 1.6 leanaí a rugadh / bean (1990)

Nationality: noun–Korean(s); adjective–Korean

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous; small Chinese minority (about 20,000)

Religion: strong Confucian tradition; vigorous Christian minority (28%
of the total population); Buddhism; pervasive folk religion (Shamanism);
Chondokyo (religion of the heavenly way), eclectic religion with nationalist
overtones founded in 19th century, claims about 1.5 million adherents

Language: Korean; English widely taught in high school

Literacy: over 90%

Labor force: 16,900,000; 52% services and other; 27% mining and
manufacturing; 21% agriculture, fishing, forestry (1987)

Organized labor: about 10% of nonagricultural labor force in
government-sanctioned unions

Rialtas
Long-form name: Republic of Korea; abbreviated ROK

Cineál: Poblacht

Capital: Seoul

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and
6 special cities* (jikhalsi, singular and plural); Cheju-do,
Cholla-bukto, Cholla-namdo, Ch'ungch'ong-bukto,
Ch'ungch'ong-namdo, Inch'on-jikhalsi*, Kangwon-do,
Kwangju-jikhalsi, Kyonggi-do, Kyongsang-bukto,
Kyongsang-namdo, Pusan-jikhalsi*, Soul-t'ukpyolsi*,
Taegu-jikhalsi*, Taejon-jikhalsi

Independence: 15 August 1948

Constitution: 25 February 1988

Legal system: combines elements of continental European civil law systems,
Anglo-American law, and Chinese classical thought; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 August (1948)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
State Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Ceannairí:
Chief of State–President ROH Tae Woo (since 25 February 1988);

Head of Government–Prime Minister KANG Young Hoon (since 5 December
1988); Deputy Prime Minister CHO Soon (since 5 December 1988)

Political parties and leaders: major party is government's Democratic
Justice Party (DJP), Roh Tae Woo, president, and Park Tae Chun, chairman;
opposition parties are Peace and Democracy Party (PPD), Kim Dae Jung; Korea
Reunification Democratic Party (RPD), Kim Young Sam; New Democratic Republican
Party (NDRP), Kim Jong Pil; several smaller parties

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Faighteoir:
President–last held on 16 December 1987 (next to be held December 1992);
results–Roh Tae Woo (DJP) 35.9%, Kim Young Sam (RDP) 27.5%,
Kim Dae Jung (PPD) 26.5%, other 10.1%;

National Assembly–last held on 26 April 1988 (next to be held
April 1992);
results–DJP 34%, RPD 24%, PPD 19%, NDRP 15%, others 8%;
seats–(299 total) DJP 125, PPD 71, RPD 59, NDRP 35, others 9

Communists: Communist party activity banned by government

Other political or pressure groups: Korean National Council of Churches;
large, potentially volatile student population concentrated in Seoul; Federation
of Korean Trade Unions; Korean Veterans' Association; Federation of Korean
Industries; Korean Traders Association

Member of: ADB, AfDB, ASPAC, CCC, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, IWC–International Whaling
Commission, IWC–International Wheat Council, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNESCO,
UNICEF, UNIDO, UN Special Fund, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO;
official observer status at UN

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Tong-Jin PARK; Seansaireachta ag
2320 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-5600;
there are Korean Consulates General in Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta,
Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle;
US–Ambassador Donald GREGG; Embassy at 82 Sejong-Ro,
Chongro-ku, Seoul (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96301); telephone Õ82å
(2) 732-2601 through 2618; there is a US Consulate in Pusan

Flag: white with a red (top) and blue yin-yang symbol in the center; there
is a different black trigram from the ancient I Ching (Book of Changes)
in each corner of the white field

Geilleagar
Overview: The driving force behind the economy's dynamic growth
has been the planned development of an export-oriented economy in a
vigorously entrepreneurial society. GNP increased almost 13% in both
1986 and 1987 and 12% in 1988 before slowing to 6.5% in 1989. Such a
rapid rate of growth was achieved with an inflation rate of only 3% in the
period 1986-87, rising to 7% in 1988 and 5% in 1989. Unemployment is
also low, and some labor bottlenecks have appeared in several processing
industries. While the South Korean economy is expected to grow at more
than 5% annually during the 1990s, labor unrest–which led to
substantial wage hikes in 1987-89–threatens to undermine
noninflationary growth.

GNP: $200 billion, per capita $4,600; real growth rate 6.5% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 3% (1989)

Budget: revenues $33.6 billion; expenditures $33.6 billion, including
capital expenditures of NA (1990)

Exports: $62.3 billion (fob, 1989); commodities–textiles,
clothing, electronic and electrical equipment, footwear, machinery, steel,
automobiles, ships, fish; partners–US 33%, Japan 21%

Imports: $61.3 billion (cif, 1989);
commodities–machinery, electronics and electronic equipment, oil,
steel, transport equipment, textiles, organic chemicals, grains;
partners–Japan 28%, US 25% (1990)

External debt: $30.5 billion (September 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.5% (1989)

Electricity: 20,500,000 kW capacity; 80,000 million kWh produced,
1,850 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, clothing, footwear, food processing, chemicals,
steel, electronics, automobile production, ship building

Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GNP and employs 21% of work force
(including fishing and forestry); principal crops–rice, root crops, barley,
vegetables, fruit; livestock and livestock products–cattle, hogs, chickens,
milk, eggs; self-sufficient in food, except for wheat; fish catch of 2.9
million metric tons, seventh-largest in world

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $3.9 billion

Currency: South Korean won (plural–won);
1 South Korean won (W) = 100 chon (theoretical)

Exchange rates: South Korean won (W) per US$1–683.43 (January 1990),
671.46 (1989), 731.47 (1988), 822.57 (1987), 881.45 (1986), 870.02 (1985)

Bhliain fioscach: bliain féilire

Cumarsáid
Railroads: 3,106 km operating in 1983; 3,059 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge, 47 km 0.610-meter narrow gauge, 712 km double track, 418 km
electrified; government owned

Highways: 62,936 km total (1982); 13,476 km national highway, 49,460 km
provincial and local roads

Inland waterways: 1,609 km; use restricted to small native craft

Pipelines: 294 km refined products

Ports: Pusan, Inchon, Kunsan, Mokpo, Ulsan

Merchant marine: 423 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,006,481
GRT/11,658,104 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 130 cargo, 41 container,
11 refrigerated cargo, 11 vehicle carrier, 49 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 8 chemical tanker, 10 liquefied gas, 10 combination ore/oil,
143 bulk, 7 combination bulk, 1 multifunction large-load carrier

Civil air: 93 major transport aircraft

Airports: 112 total, 105 usable; 61 with permanent-surface runways;
aon cheann le rúidbhealaí níos mó ná 3,659 m; with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with
Rúidbhealaí 1.220-2.439 m

Telecommunications: adequate domestic and international services;
4,800,000 telephones; stations–79 AM, 46 FM, 256 TV (57 of 1 kW or greater);
satellite earth stations–2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

Fórsaí cosanta
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps

Military manpower: males 15-49, 12,792,426; 8,260,886 fit for military
seirbhíse; 445,320 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 5% of GNP, or $10 billion (1989 est.)
.On
Kuwait
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 17,820 km2; land area: 17,820 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 462 km total; Iraq 240 km, Saudi Arabia 222 km

Coastline: 499 km

Éilimh muirí:

Scairbh ilchríochach: Nach Sonraítear in aon;

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Disputes: ownership of Warbah and Bubiyan islands disputed
by Iraq; ownership of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim Islands disputed by
Saudi Arabia

Climate: dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters

Terrain: flat to slightly undulating desert plain

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas

Land use: NEGL% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 8% meadows and
féarach; NEGL% forest and woodland; 92% other; Áirítear negl% uiscithe

Environment: some of world's largest and most sophisticated desalination
facilities provide most of water; air and water pollution; desertification

Note: strategic location at head of Persian Gulf

PeopleSoft
Population: 2,123,711 (July 1990), growth rate 3.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 2 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 11 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 15 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Kuwaiti(s); adjective–Kuwaiti

Ethnic divisions: 27.9% Kuwaiti, 39% other Arab, 9% South Asian, 4%
Iranian, 20.1% other

Religion: 85% Muslim (30% Shia, 45% Sunni, 10% other),
15% Christian, Hindu, Parsi, and other

Language: Arabic (official); English widely spoken

Literacy: 71% (est.)

Labor force: 566,000 (1986); 45.0% services, 20.0% construction, 12.0%
trade, 8.6% manufacturing, 2.6% finance and real estate, 1.9% agriculture, 1.7%
power and water, 1.4% mining and quarrying; 70% of labor force is non-Kuwaiti

Organized labor: labor unions exist in oil industry and among government
personnel

Rialtas
Long-form name: State of Kuwait

Type: nominal constitutional monarchy

Capital: Kuwait

Administrative divisions: 4 governorates (muhafazat,
singular–muhafazah); Al Ahmadi, Al Jahrah, Al Kuwayt,
Hawalli; note–there may be a new governorate of Farwaniyyah

Independence: 19 June 1961 (from UK)

Constitution: 16 November 1962 (some provisions suspended since 29
August 1962)

Legal system: civil law system with Islamic law significant in personal
matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 25 February

Executive branch: amir, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: National Assembly (Majlis al Umma) dissolved
3 July 1986

Judicial branch: High Court of Appeal

Ceannairí:
Chief of State–Amir Sheikh Jabir al-Ahmad al-Jabir Al SABAH
(since 31 December 1977);

Head of Government–Prime Minister and Crown Prince Sad Abdallah
al-Salim Al SABAH (since 8 February 1978)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: adult males who resided in Kuwait before 1920 and their male
descendants at age 21; note–out of all citizens, only 8.3% are
eligible to vote and only 3.5% actually vote

Faighteoir:
National Assembly–dissolved 3 July 1986 and no elections are
planned

Communists: insignificant

Other political or pressure groups: large (350,000) Palestinian
community; several small, clandestine leftist and Shia fundamentalist groups
are active

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GATT, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IPU, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Shaikh Saud Nasir AL-SABAH;
Chancery at 2940 Tilden Street NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 966-0702;
US–Ambassador W. Nathaniel HOWELL; Embassy at Bneid al-Gar (opposite the
Hilton Hotel), Kuwait City (mailing address is PO Box 77 Safat, 13001 Safat,
Kuwait City); telephone Õ965å 242-4151 through 4159

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a
black trapezoid based on the hoist side

Geilleagar
Overview: The oil sector dominates the economy. Of the countries in the
Middle East, Kuwait has oil reserves second only to those of Saudi Arabia.
Earnings from hydrocarbons generate over 90% of both export and government
revenues and contribute about 40% to GDP. Most of the nonoil sector is dependent
upon oil-derived government revenues to provide infrastructure development and
to promote limited industrial diversification. The economy is heavily dependent
upon foreign labor–Kuwaitis account for less than 20% of the labor force. The
early years of the Iran-Iraq war pushed Kuwait's GDP well below its 1980 peak;
however, during the period 1986-88, GDP increased each year, rising to 5% in
1988.

GDP: $20.5 billion, per capita $10,500; real growth rate 5.0% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget: revenues $7.1 billion; expenditures $10.5 billion, including
capital expenditures of $3.1 billion (FY88)

Exports: $7.1 billion (fob, 1988); commodities–oil 90%;
partners–Japan, Italy, FRG, US

Imports: $5.2 billion (fob, 1988); commodities–food,
construction material, vehicles and parts, clothing; partners–Japan,
US, FRG, UK

External debt: $7.2 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1988)

Electricity: 8,287,000 kW capacity; 21,500 million kWh produced,
10,710 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, desalination, food processing,
salt, construction

Agriculture: virtually none; dependent on imports for food; about 75% of
potable water must be distilled or imported

Aid: donor–pledged $18.3 billion in bilateral aid to less developed
countries (1979-89)

Currency: Kuwaiti dinar (plural–dinars);
1 Kuwaiti dinar (KD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Kuwaiti dinars (KD) per US$1–0.2915 (January 1990),
0.2937 (1989), 0.2790 (1988), 0.2786 (1987), 0.2919 (1986), 0.3007 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Cumarsáid
Highways: 3,000 km total; 2,500 km bituminous; 500 km earth, sand, light
gravel

Pipelines: crude oil, 877 km; refined products, 40 km; natural gas, 165 km

Ports: Ash Shuwaykh, Ash Shuaybah, Mina al Ahmadi

Merchant marine: 51 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 1,862,010
GRT/2,935,007 DWT; includes 18 cargo, 5 container, 5 livestock carrier,
18 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 5 liquefied gas

Civil air: 19 major transport aircraft

Airports: 8 total, 4 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
aon cheann le rúidbhealaí níos mó ná 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
aon cheann le rúidbhealaí 1.220-2.439 m

Telecommunications: excellent international, adequate domestic facilities;
258,000 telephones; stations–3 AM, 2 FM, 3 TV; satellite earth stations–1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT; 1 INMARSAT, 1 ARABSAT;
coaxial cable and radio relay to Iraq and Saudi Arabia

Fórsaí cosanta
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police Force, National Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, about 688,516; about 411,742 fit for
military service; 18,836 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 5.8% of GDP, or $1.2 billion (FY89)
.On
Laos
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 236,800 km2; land area: 230,800 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Utah

Land boundaries: 5,083 km total; Burma 235 km, Cambodia 541 km, China
423 km, Thailand 1,754 km, Vietnam 2,130 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Disputes: boundary dispute with Thailand

Climate: tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season
(December to April)

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; some plains and plateaus

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, tin, gold,
gemstones

Land use: 4% arable land; Negl% bharra buana; 3% meadows and
féarach; 58% forest and woodland; 35% other; Áirítear 1% uiscithe

Environment: deforestation; creimeadh ithreach; subject to floods

Note: landlocked

PeopleSoft
Population: 4,023,726 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Ráta breithe: 37 breitheanna / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Ráta Glan imirce: 0 imircigh / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 126 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 51 years female (1990)

Ráta Iomlán torthúlachta: 5.1 leanaí a rugadh / bean (1990)

Nationality: noun–Lao (sing., Lao or Laotian); adjective–Lao or Laotian

Ethnic divisions: 50% Lao, 15% Phoutheung (Kha), 20% tribal Thai, 15% Meo,
Hmong, Yao, and other

Religion: 85% Buddhist, 15% animist and other

Language: Lao (official), French, and English

Literacy: 85%

Labor force: 1-1.5 million; 85-90% in agriculture (est.)

Organized labor: Lao Federation of Trade Unions is subordinate to the
Communist party

Rialtas
Long-form name: Lao People's Democratic Republic

Type: Communist state

Capital: Vientiane

Administrative divisions: 16 provinces (khoueng, singular and plural)
and 1 municipality* (kampheng nakhon, singular and plural); Attapu, Bokeo,
Bolikhamsai, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouan, Louang Namtha, Louangphrabang,
Oudomxai, Phongsali, Saravan, Savannakhet, Sekong, Vientiane,
Vientiane*, Xaignabouri, Xiangkhoang

Independence: 19 July 1949 (from France)

Constitution: draft constitution under discussion since 1976

Legal system: based on civil law system; Níl TAR Ghlac ICJ éigeantach
Dlínse

National holiday: National Day (proclamation of the Lao People's
Democratic Republic), 2 December (1975)

Executive branch: president, chairman and five vice chairmen of the
Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: Supreme People's Assembly

Judicial branch: Central Supreme Court

Ceannairí:
Chief of State–Acting President PHOUMI VONGVICHIT (since 29 October
1986);

Head of Government–Chairman of the Council of Ministers General
KAYSONE PHOMVIHAN (since 2 December 1975)

Political parties and leaders: Lao People's Revolutionary Party
(LPRP), Kaysone Phomvihan, party chairman; includes Lao Patriotic
Front and Alliance Committee of Patriotic Neutralist Forces; other
parties moribund

Vótáil chomhchoiteann: Uilíoch ag aois 18

Faighteoir:
Supreme People's Assembly–last held on 26 March 1989 (next to be
held NA); torthaí-faoin gcéad de vóta ag páirtí NA;
seats–(79 total) number of seats by party NA

Other political or pressure groups: non-Communist political groups
moribund; most leaders have fled the country

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, Mekong Committee, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: First Secretary, Charge d'Affaires ad interim
DONE SOMVORACHIT; Chancery at 2222 S Street NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 332-6416 or 6417;
US–Charge d'Affaires Charles B. SALMON; Embassy at Rue
Bartholonie, Vientiane (mailing address is BP 114, Vientiane, or
Box V, APO San Francisco 96346); telephone 2220, 2357, 2384

Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), blue (double width), and red
with a large white disk centered in the blue band

Geilleagar
Overview: One of the world's poorest nations, Laos has had a Communist
centrally planned economy with government ownership and control of
productive enterprises of any size. Recently, however, the government
has been decentralizing control and encouraging private enterprise.
Laos is a landlocked country with a primitive infrastructure, that is,
it has no railroads, a rudimentary road system, limited
external and internal telecommunications, and electricity
available in only a limited area. Subsistence agriculture is the
main occupation, accounting for over 60% of GDP and providing about 85-90% of
total employment. The predominant crop is rice. For the foreseeable future the
economy will continue to depend for its survival on foreign aid–from
CEMA, IMF, and other international sources.

GDP: $585 million, per capita $150; real growth rate 3% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $71 million; expenditures $198 million, including
capital expenditures of $132 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $57.5 million (fob, 1989 est.); commodities–
electricity, wood products, coffee, tin; partners–Thailand, Malaysia,
Vietnam, USSR, US

Imports: $219 million (cif, 1989 est.); commodities–food, fuel
oil, consumer goods, manufactures; partners–Thailand, USSR, Japan,
France, Vietnam

External debt: $964 million (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 8% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 176,000 kW capacity; 900 million kWh produced,
225 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tin mining, timber, electric power, agricultural
processing

Agriculture: accounts for 60% of GDP and employs most of the work force;
subsistence farming predominates; normally self-sufficient; Príomh-
crops–rice (80% of cultivated land), potatoes, vegetables, coffee,
sugarcane, cotton

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and opium poppy for the
Trádáil Drugaí Idirnáisiúnta; production of cannabis increased in 1989;
marijuana and heroin are shipped to Western countries, including the US

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $276 million; Iarthair
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $468
million; Communist countries (1970-88), $895 million

Currency: new kip (plural–kips); 1 new kip (NK) = 100 at

Exchange rates: new kips (NK) per US$1–700 (December 1989), 725 (1989),
350 (1988), 200 (1987), 108 (1986), 95 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Cumarsáid
Highways: about 27,527 km total; 1,856 km bituminous or bituminous
treated; 7,451 km gravel, crushed stone, or improved earth; 18,220 km unimproved
earth and often impassable during rainy season mid-May to mid-September

Inland waterways: about 4,587 km, primarily Mekong and tributaries; 2,897
additional kilometers are sectionally navigable by craft drawing less than 0.5 m

Pipelines: 136 km, refined products

Ports: none

Airports: 64 total, 50 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
aon cheann le rúidbhealaí níos mó ná 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: service to general public considered poor; radio
network provides generally erratic service to government users; 7,390 telephones
(1986); stations–10 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth station

Fórsaí cosanta
Branches: Lao People's Army (LPA, which consists of an army with naval,
aviation, and militia elements), Air Force, National Police Department

Military manpower: males 15-49, 967,047; 517,666 fit for military service;
44,176 reach military age (18) annually; conscription age NA

Defense expenditures: 3.8% of GDP (1987)
.On
Lebanon
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 10,400 km2; land area: 10,230 km2

Comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 454 km total; Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km

Coastline: 225 km

Éilimh muirí:

Farraige Críche: 12 nm

Disputes: separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line;
Israeli troops in southern Lebanon since June 1982; Syrian troops in
northern Lebanon since October 1976

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers

Terrain: narrow coastal plain; Al Biqa (Bekaa Valley) separates
Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains

Natural resources: limestone, iron ore, salt; water-surplus state
in a water-deficit region

Land use: 21% arable land; 9% permanent crops; 1% meadows and
féarach; 8% forest and woodland; 61% other; includes 7% irrigated

Environment: rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect,
and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, ethnicity;
dífhoraoisiú = creimeadh ithreach; air and water pollution; desertification

Note: Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East
not crossing an international boundary

PeopleSoft
Population: 3,339,331 (July 1990), growth rate 1.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 8 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 49 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Lebanese (sing., pl.); adjective–Lebanese

Ethnic divisions: 93% Arab, 6% Armenian, 1% other

Religion: 75% Islam, 25% Christian, NEGL% Judaism; 17 legally recognized
sects–4 Orthodox Christian (Armenian Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Nestorean,
Syriac Orthodox), 7 Uniate Christian (Armenian Catholic, Caldean, Greek
Catholic, Maronite, Protestant, Roman Catholic, Syrian Catholic), 5 Islam
(Alawite or Nusayri, Druze, Ismailite, Shia, Sunni), and 1 Jewish

Language: Arabic and French (both official); Armenian, English

Literacy: 75%

Labor force: 650,000; 79% industry, commerce, and services,
11% agriculture, 10% goverment (1985)

Organized labor: 250,000 members (est.)

Rialtas
Note: Between early 1975 and late 1976 Lebanon was torn by civil
war between its Christians–then aided by Syrian troops–and its Muslims
and their Palestinian allies. The cease-fire established in October
1976 between the domestic political groups generally held for about six
years, despite occasional fighting. Syrian troops constituted as the Arab
Deterrent Force by the Arab League have remained in Lebanon. Syria's
move toward supporting the Lebanese Muslims and the Palestinians and
Israel's growing support for Lebanese Christians brought the two sides
into rough equilibrium, but no progress was made toward national
reconciliation or political reforms–the original cause of the war.

Continuing Israeli concern about the Palestinian presence in
Lebanon led to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in June 1982. Israeli
forces occupied all of the southern portion of the country and mounted a
summer-long siege of Beirut, which resulted in the evacuation of the
PLO from Beirut in September under the supervision of a multinational
force (MNF) made up of US, French, and Italian troops.

Within days of the departure of the MNF, Lebanon's newly elected
president, Bashir Gemayel, was assassinated. In the wake of his death,
Christian militiamen massacred hundreds of Palestinian refugees in two
Beirut camps. This prompted the return of the MNF to ease the security
burden on Lebanon's weak Army and security forces. In late March 1984
the last MNF units withdrew.

Lebanese Parliamentarians met in Taif, Saudi Arabia in late 1989 and
concluded a national reconciliation pact that codified a new power-sharing
formula, specifiying a Christian president but giving Muslims more
authority. Rene Muawad was subsequently elected president on 4 November
1989, ending a 13-month period during which Lebanon had no president and
rival Muslim and Christian governments. Muawad was assassinated
17 days later, on 22 November; on 24 November Elias Harawi was
elected to succeed Muawad.

Progress toward lasting political compromise in Lebanon has been
stalled by opposition from Christian strongman Gen. Michel Awn.
Awn–appointed acting Prime Minister by outgoing president Amin Gemayel
in September 1988–called the national reconciliation accord
illegitimate and has refused to recognize the new Lebanese Government.

Lebanon continues to be partially occupied by Syrian troops. Syria
augmented its troop presence during the weeks following Muawad's
assassination. Troops are deployed in West Beirut and its southern
suburbs, in Al Biqa, and in northern Lebanon. Iran also maintains
a small contingent of revolutionary guards in Al Biqa, from
which it supports Lebanese Islamic fundamentalist groups.

Israel withdrew the bulk of its forces from the south in 1985,
although it still retains troops in a 10-km-deep security zone north
of its border with Lebanon. Israel arms and trains the Army of South
Lebanon (ASL), which also occupies the security zone and is Israel's
first line of defense against attacks on its northern border.

The following description is based on the present constitutional and
customary practices of the Lebanese system.

Long-form name: Republic of Lebanon; note–may be changed to
Lebanese Republic

Cineál: Poblacht

Capital: Beirut

Administrative divisions: 5 governorates (muhafazat,
singular–muhafazah); Al Biqa, Al Janub, Ash Shamal,
Bayrut, Jabal Lubnan

Independence: 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under
French administration)

Constitution: 26 May 1926 (amended)

Legal system: mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code,
and civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 22 November (1943)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet; note–by custom,
the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim,
and the president of the legislature is a Shia Muslim

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Arabic–Majlis
Alnuwab, French–Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil and
commercial cases and one court for criminal cases)

Ceannairí:
Chief of State–Elias HARAWI (since 24 November 1989);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Salim AL-HUSS (since 24
November 1989)

Political parties and leaders: political party activity is organized along
largely sectarian lines; numerous political groupings exist, consisting of
individual political figures and followers motivated by religious, clan, and
economic considerations; most parties have well-armed militias, which are still
involved in occasional clashes

Suffrage: compulsory for all males at age 21; authorized for women
at age 21 with elementary education

Faighteoir:
National Assembly–elections should be held every four years
but security conditions have prevented elections since May 1972

Communists: the Lebanese Communist Party was legalized in 1970; members
and sympathizers estimated at 2,000-3,000

Member of: Arab League, CCC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IPU, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, NAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant); Charge
d'Affaires Suleiman RASSI; note–the former Lebanese Ambassador,
Dr. Abdallah Bouhabib, is loyal to Gen. Awn and has refused to
abandon his residence or relinquish his post; Chancery at 2560 28th
Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-6300;
there are Lebanese Consulates General in Detroit, New York, and Los Angeles;
US–Ambassador John T. MCCARTHY; Embassy at Avenue de Paris, Beirut
(mailing address is PO Box 70-840, Beirut); telephone Õ961å 417774 or 415802,
415803, 402200, 403300

Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), white (double width), and red
with a green and brown cedar tree centered in the white band

Geilleagar
Overview: Severe factional infighting in 1989 has been destroying physical
property, interrupting the established pattern of economic affairs, and
practically ending chances of restoring Lebanon's position as a Middle
Eastern entrepot and banking hub. The ordinary Lebanese citizen
struggles to keep afloat in an environment of physical danger, high
unemployment, and growing shortages. The central government's ability
to collect taxes has suffered greatly from militia control and taxation
of local areas. As the civil strife persists, the US dollar has become
more and more the medium of exchange. Transportation,
communications, and other parts of the infrastructure continue to deteriorate.
Family remittances, foreign political money going to the factions, international
emergency aid, and a small volume of manufactured exports help prop up the
battered economy. Prospects for 1990 are grim, with expected further declines in
economic activity and living standards.

GDP: $2.3 billion, per capita $700; real growth rate NA% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 60% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 33% (1987 est.)

Budget: revenues $50 million; expenditures $650 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1988 est.)

Exports: $1.0 billion (fob, 1987);
commodities–agricultural products, chemicals, textiles, precious
and semiprecious metals and jewelry, metals and metal products;
partners–Saudi Arabia 16%, Switzerland 8%, Jordan 6%, Kuwait 6%, US 5%

Imports: $1.5 billion (cif, 1987); commodities–NA;
partners–Italy 14%, France 12%, US 6%, Turkey 5%, Saudi Arabia 3%

External debt: $935 million (December 1988)

Tháirgeadh tionsclaíoch: ráta fáis NA%

Electricity: 1,381,000 kW capacity; 3,870 million kWh produced,
1,170 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: banking, food processing, textiles, cement, oil refining,
chemicals, jewelry, some metal fabricating

Agriculture: accounts for about one-third of GDP; Príomh-
products–citrus fruits, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco, hemp
(hashish), sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient in grain

Drugaí aindleathacha: léiritheoir aindleathach poipín óipiam agus cannabais do na
Trádáil Drugaí Idirnáisiúnta; opium poppy production in Al Biqa
is increasing; most hashish production is shipped to
Western Europe

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $356 million; Iarthair
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $509 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $962 million; Communist countries (1970-86),
$9 million

Currency: Lebanese pound (plural–pounds);
1 Lebanese pound (LL) = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Lebanese pounds (LL) per US$1–474.21 (December 1989),
496.69 (1989), 409.23 (1988), 224.60 (1987), 38.37 (1986), 16.42 (1985)

Bhliain fioscach: bliain féilire

Cumarsáid
Railroads: 378 km total; 296 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 82 km
1.050-meter gauge; all single track; system almost entirely inoperable

Highways: 7,370 km total; 6,270 km paved, 450 km gravel and crushed stone,
650 km improved earth

Pipelines: crude oil, 72 km (none in operation)

Ports: Beirut, Tripoli, Ras Silata, Juniyah, Sidon,
Az Zahrani, Tyre, Shikka (none are under the direct control
of the Lebanese Government); northern ports are occupied by Syrian
forces and southern ports are occupied or partially quarantined by
Israeli forces; illegal ports scattered along the central coast are
owned and operated by various Christian, Druze, and Shia militias

Merchant marine: 67 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 325,361
GRT/494,319 DWT; includes 43 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 2 vehicle
carrier, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 container, 7 livestock carrier, 1
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker,
1 specialized tanker, 6 bulk, 1 combination bulk

Civil air: 15 major transport aircraft

Airports: 9 total, 8 usable; 5 le rúidbhealaí buan-dromchla;
aon cheann le rúidbhealaí níos mó ná 3,659 m; 3 le rúidbhealaí 2.440-3.659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m; none under the direct control of the
Lebanese Government

Telecommunications: rebuilding program disrupted; had fair system of
radio relay, cable; 325,000 telephones; stations–5 AM, 3 FM, 15 TV;
1 inactive Indian Ocean INTELSAT satellite earth station; 3 submarine
coaxial cables; radio relay to Jordan and Syria, inoperable

Fórsaí cosanta
Brainsí: Arm, Cabhlach, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 702,961; 434,591 fit for military
seirbhíse; about 44,625 reach military age (18) yearly

Defense expenditures: NA
.On
Lesotho
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 30,350 km2; land area: 30,350 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundary: 909 km with South Africa

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Climate: temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly highland with some plateaus, hills, and mountains

Natural resources: some diamonds and other minerals, water,
agricultural and grazing land

Land use: 10% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 66% meadows and
féarach; 0% forest and woodland; 24% other

Environment: population pressure forcing settlement in marginal areas
results in overgrazing, severe soil erosion, soil exhaustion; desertification

Note: surrounded by South Africa; Highlands Water Project will control,
store, and redirect water to South Africa

PeopleSoft
Population: 1,754,664 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Ráta breithe: 37 breitheanna / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Ráta Glan imirce: 0 imircigh / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 80 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 62 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Mosotho (sing.), Basotho (pl.); adjective–Basotho

Ethnic divisions: 99.7% Sotho; 1,600 Europeans, 800 Asians

Religion: 80% Christian, rest indigenous beliefs

Language: Sesotho (southern Sotho) and English (official); also Zulu and
Xhosa

Literacy: 59% (1989)

Labor force: 689,000 economically active; 86.2% of resident population
engaged in subsistence agriculture; roughly 60% of active male labor force works
in South Africa

Organized labor: there are two trade union federations; the
government favors formation of a single, umbrella trade union
confederation

Rialtas
Long-form name: Kingdom of Lesotho

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Maseru

Administrative divisions: 10 districts; Berea, Butha-Buthe, Leribe,
Mafeteng, Maseru, Mohales Hoek, Mokhotlong, Qachas Nek, Quthing,
Thaba-Tseka

Independence: 4 October 1966 (from UK; formerly Basutoland)

Constitution: 4 October 1966, suspended January 1970

Legal system: based on English common law and Roman-Dutch law;
judicial review of legislative acts in High Court and Court of Appeal; TAR ÉIS
nach nglactar éigeantach ICJ Dlínse

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 October (1966)

Executive branch: monarch, chairman of the Military Council, Military
Council, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: a bicameral Parliament consisting of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or National Assembly was dissolved in January 1970;
following the military coup of 20 January 1986, legislative powers were vested
in the monarch

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Ceannairí:
Chief of State–King MOSHOESHOE II (Paramount Chief from 1960 until
independence on 4 October 1966, when he became King); Heir Apparent Letsie
David SEEISO (son of the King);

Head of Government–Chairman of the Military Council Maj. Gen Justin
Metsing LEKHANYA (since 24 January 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Basotho National Party (BNP),
position vacant; Basutoland Congress Party (BCP), Ntsu Mokhehle; Basotho
Democratic Alliance (BDA), AS Nqojane; National Independent Party (NIP),
AC Manyeli; Marematlou Freedom Party (MFP), SH Mapheleba; United
Democratic Party, CD Mofeli

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Faighteoir:
National Assembly –dissolved following the military coup in
January 1986; no date set for national elections

Communists: small Lesotho Communist Party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, Southern African
Customs Union, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador WT VAN TONDER; Seansaireachta ag
2511 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 797-5 534;
US–Ambassador (vacant): Deputy Chief of Mission Howard F. JETER;
Embassy at address NA, Maseru (mailing address is PO Box 333, Maseru
100); telephone Õ266å 312666

Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper half
is white bearing the brown silhouette of a large shield with crossed spear and
club; the lower half is a diagonal blue band with a green triangle in the corner

Geilleagar
Overview: Small, landlocked, and mountainous, Lesotho has no important
natural resources other than water. Its economy is based on agriculture,
light manufacturing, and remittances from laborers employed in South Africa.
Subsistence farming is the principal occupation for about 86% of the domestic
labor force and accounts for about 20% of GDP. Manufacturing depends largely on
farm products to support the milling, canning, leather, and jute industries;
other industries include textile, clothing, and light engineering. Industry's
share of total GDP rose from 6% in 1982 to 10.5% in 1987. During the period
1985-87 real GDP growth averaged 2.9% per year, only slightly above the
population growth rate. In FY89 per capita GDP was only $245 and
nearly 25% of the labor force was unemployed.

GDP: $412 million, per capita $245; real growth rate 8.2% (FY89 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15.0% (FY89 est.)

Unemployment rate: 23% (1988)

Budget: revenues $159 million; expenditures $224 million, including
capital expenditures of $68 million (FY89 est.)

Exports: $55 million (fob, FY89 est.); commodities–wool,
mohair, wheat, cattle, peas, beans, corn, hides, skins, baskets;
partners–South Africa 87%, EC 10%, (1985)

Imports: $526 million (fob, FY89 est.); commodities–mainly
corn, building materials, clothing, vehicles, machinery, medicines, petroleum,
oil, and lubricants; partners–South Africa 95%, EC 2% (1985)

External debt: $235 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 10.3% (1988 est.)

Electricity: power supplied by South Africa

Industries: tourism

Agriculture: exceedingly primitive, mostly subsistence farming and
livestock; principal crops are corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $252 million; Iarthair
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $714 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4 million; Tíortha cumannach (1970-1988);
$14 million

Currency: loti (plural–maloti); 1 loti (L) = 100 lisente

Exchange rates: maloti (M) per US$1–2.5555 (January 1990),
2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685 (1986), 2.1911 (1985);
note–the Basotho loti is at par with the South African rand

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Cumarsáid
Railroads: 1.6 km; owned, operated, and included in the statistics of
South Africa

Highways: 5,167 km total; 508 km paved; 1,585 km crushed stone,
gravel, or stabilized soil; 946 km improved earth, 2,128 km unimproved earth

Aeir Sibhialta: 2 aerárthach Mór iompair

Airports: 28 total, 28 usable; 2 with permanent surface runways;
aon cheann le rúidbhealaí níos mó ná 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modest system consisting of a few land lines, a small
radio relay system, and minor radiocommunication stations; 5,920 telephones;
stations–2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; Stáisiún domhain 1 tAigéan Atlantach Intelsat

Fórsaí cosanta
Branches: Army, Air Wing, Police Department

Military manpower: males 15-49, 381,015; 205,499 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 8.6% of GDP, or $35 million (1989 est.)
.On
Liberia
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 111,370 km2; land area: 96,320 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: 1,585 km total; Guinea 563 km, Ivory Coast 716 km,
Sierra Leone 306 km

Coastline: 579 km

Éilimh muirí:

Scairbh ilchríochach: 200 méadar nó chun doimhneacht saothrú;

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Aeráide: trópaiceach; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool
to cold nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling coastal plains rising to rolling plateau
and low mountains in northeast

Natural resources: iron ore, timber, diamonds, gold

Land use: 1% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 2% meadows and pastures;
39% forest and woodland; 55% other; Áirítear negl% uiscithe

Environment: West Africa's largest tropical rain forest, subject to
dífhoraoisiú

PeopleSoft
Population: 2,639,809 (July 1990), growth rate 3.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 126 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 58 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Liberian(s); adjective–Liberian

Ethnic divisions: 95% indigenous African tribes, including Kpelle, Bassa,
Gio, Kru, Grebo, Mano, Krahn, Gola, Gbandi, Loma, Kissi, Vai, and Bella; 5%
descendants of repatriated slaves known as Americo-Liberians

Religion: 70% traditional, 20% Muslim, 10% Christian

Language: English (official); more than 20 local languages of the
Niger-Congo language group; English used by about 20%

Literacy: 35%

Labor force: 510,000, including 220,000 in the monetary economy;
70.5% agriculture, 10.8% services, 4.5% industry and commerce, 14.2% other;
non-African foreigners hold about 95% of the top-level management and
engineering jobs; 52% of population of working age

Organized labor: 2% of labor force

Rialtas
Long-form name: Republic of Liberia

Cineál: Poblacht

Capital: Monrovia

Administrative divisions: 13 counties; Bomi, Bong, Grand Bassa,
Grand Cape Mount, Grand Jide, Grand Kru, Lofa, Margibi, Maryland, Montserrado,
Nimba, Rivercess, Sino

Independence: 26 July 1847

Constitution: 6 January 1986

Legal system: dual system of statutory law based on Anglo-American common
law for the modern sector and customary law based on unwritten tribal practices
for indigenous sector

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1847)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of an
upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court

Ceannairí:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Gen. Dr. Samuel Kanyon
DOE (since 12 April 1980); Vice President Harry F. MONIBA (since 6 January
1986)

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party of Liberia
(NDPL), Augustus Caine, chairman; Liberian Action Party (LAP), Emmanuel
Koromah, chairman; Unity Party (UP), Carlos Smith, chairman; United
People's Party (UPP), Gabriel Baccus Matthews, chairman

Vótáil chomhchoiteann: Uilíoch ag aois 18

Faighteoir:
President–last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held October 1991);
results–Samuel Kanyon Doe (NDPL) 50.9%, Jackson Doe (LAP) 26.4%,
others 22.7%;

Senate–last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held 15 October
1991); torthaí-faoin gcéad de vóta ag páirtí NA;
seats–(26 total) NDPL 21, LAP 3, UP 1, LUP 1;

House of Representatives–last held on 15 October 1985 (next
to be held October 1991); torthaí-faoin gcéad de vóta ag páirtí NA;
seats–(64 total) NDPL 51, LAP 8, UP 3, LUP 2

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, Mano River Union, NAM,
OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Eugenia A. WORDSWORTH-STEVENSON;
Chancery at 5201 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20011; telephone (202) 723-0437
through 0440; there is a Liberian Consulate General in New York;
US–Ambassador James K. BISHOP; Embassy at 111 United Nations Drive,
Monrovia (mailing address is PO Box 98, Monrovia, or APO New York 09155);
telephone Õ231å 222991 through 222994

Flag: 11 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with
white; there is a white five-pointed star on a blue square in the upper
hoist-side corner; the design was based on the US flag

Geilleagar
Overview: In 1988 and 1989 the Liberian economy posted its best two years
in a decade, thanks to a resurgence of the rubber industry and rapid growth
in exports of forest products. Richly endowed with water, mineral resources,
forests, and a climate favorable to agriculture, Liberia is a producer and
exporter of basic products. Local manufacturing, mainly foreign owned, is
small in scope. Liberia imports primarily machinery and parts, transportation
equipment, petroleum products, and foodstuffs. Persistent budget deficits,
the flight of capital, and deterioration of transport and other infrastructure
continue to hold back economic progress.

GDP: $988 million, per capita $395; real growth rate 1.5% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 43% urban (1988)

Budget: revenues $242.1 million; expenditures $435.4 million, including
capital expenditures of $29.5 million (1989)

Exports: $550 million (fob, 1989); commodities–iron ore 61%,
rubber 20%, timber 11%, coffee; partners–US, EC, Netherlands

Imports: $335 million (cif, 1989); commodities–rice, mineral
fuels, chemicals, machinery, transportation equipment, other foodstuffs;
partners–US, EC, Japan, China, Netherlands, ECOWAS

External debt: $1.7 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.5% in
manufacturing (1987)

Electricity: 400,000 kW capacity; 730 million kWh produced,
290 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: rubber processing, food processing, construction
materials, furniture, palm oil processing, mining (iron ore, diamonds)

Agriculture: accounts for about 40% of GDP (including fishing and
forestry); principal products–rubber, timber, coffee, cocoa, rice, cassava,
palm oil, sugarcane, bananas, sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient in food,
imports 25% of rice consumption

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $634 million; Iarthair
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $793 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $25 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $77
million

Currency: Liberian dollar (plural–dollars);
1 Liberian dollar (L$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Liberian dollars (L$) per US$1–1.00 (fixed rate since
1940); unofficial parallel exchange rate of L$2.5 = US$1, January 1989

Bhliain fioscach: bliain féilire

Cumarsáid
Railroads: 480 km total; 328 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 152 km
1.067-meter narrow gauge; all lines single track; rail systems owned and
operated by foreign steel and financial interests in conjunction with Liberian
Rialtas

Highways: 10,087 km total; 603 km bituminous treated, 2,848 km
all weather, 4,313 km dry weather; there are also 2,323 km of private,
laterite-surfaced roads open to public use, owned by rubber and timber
companies

Ports: Monrovia, Buchanan, Greenville, Harper (or Cape Palmas)

Merchant marine: 1,379 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 48,655,666 DWT/
90,005,898 DWT; includes 11 passenger, 148 cargo, 26 refrigerated cargo, 18
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 42 vehicle carrier, 42 container, 4 barge
carrier, 436 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 100 chemical,
63 combination ore/oil, 41 liquefied gas, 6 specialized tanker, 413
bulk, 2 multifunction large-load carrier, 26 combination bulk; note–a
flag of convenience registry; all ships are foreign owned; the top
four owning flags are US 17%, Hong Kong 13%, Japan 10%, and Greece 10%;
China owns at least 20 ships and Vietnam owns 1

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 76 total, 60 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
aon cheann le rúidbhealaí níos mó ná 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with
Rúidbhealaí 1.220-2.439 m

Telecommunications: telephone and telegraph service via radio relay
network; main center is Monrovia; 8,500 telephones; stations–3 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV;
2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

Fórsaí cosanta
Branches: Armed Forces of Liberia, Liberia National Coast Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 627,519; 335,063 fit for military service;
no conscription

Defense expenditures: 2.4% of GDP (1987)
.On
Libya
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 1,759,540 km2; land area: 1,759,540 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: 4,383 km total; Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt
1,150 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km

Coastline: 1,770 km

Éilimh muirí:

Territorial sea: 12 nm;

Gulf of Sidra closing line: 32o 30′ N

Disputes: claims and occupies a small portion of the Aozou Strip in
northern Chad; maritime boundary dispute with Tunisia; Libya claims about 19,400
km2 in northern Niger; Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in southeastern Algeria

Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior

Terrain: mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, gypsum

Land use: 1% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 8% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 91% other; Áirítear negl% uiscithe

Environment: hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting
one to four days in spring and fall; desertification; sparse natural
surface-water resources

Note: the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water
development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large
aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities

PeopleSoft
Population: 4,221,141 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Ráta breithe: 37 breitheanna / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Ráta Glan imirce: 0 imircigh / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 64 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Libyan(s); adjective–Libyan

Ethnic divisions: 97% Berber and Arab; some Greeks, Maltese, Italians,
Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians

Religion: 97% Sunni Muslim

Language: Arabic; Italian and English widely understood in major cities

Literacy: 50-60%

Labor force: 1,000,000, includes about 280,000 resident
foreigners; 31% industry, 27% services, 24% government, 18% agriculture

Organized labor: National Trade Unions' Federation, 275,000 members;
General Union for Oil and Petrochemicals; Pan-Africa Federation of Petroleum
Energy and Allied Workers

Rialtas
Long-form name: Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Type: Jamahiriya (a state of the masses); in theory, governed by
the populace through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship

Capital: Tripoli

Administrative divisions: 46 municipalities (baladiyat,
singular–baladiyah); Ajdabiya, Al Abyar, Al Aziziyah,
Al Bayda, Al Jufrah, Al Jumayl, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, Al Marj,
Al Qarabulli, Al Qubbah, Al Ujaylat, Ash Shati,
Awbari, Az Zahra, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Bani Walid,
Bin Jawwad, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Ghat, Jadu, Jalu,
Janzur, Masallatah, Misratah, Mizdah, Murzuq, Nalut,
Qaminis, Qasr Bin Ghashir, Sabha, Sabratah, Shahhat,
Surman, Surt, Tajura, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq,
Tukrah, Yafran, Zlitan, Zuwarah; note–the number of municipalities may
have been reduced to 13 named Al Jabal al-Akhdar, Al Jabal al-Gharbi,
Al Jabal al-Khums, Al Batnam, Al Kufrah, Al Marqab, Al Marzuq, Az Zawiyah,
Banghazi, Khalij Surt, Sabha, Tripoli, Wadi al-Hayat

Independence: 24 December 1951 (from Italy)

Constitution: 11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977

Legal system: based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law; separate
religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative
acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)

Executive branch: revolutionary leader, chairman of the General
People's Committee, General People's Committee (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral General People's Congress

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Ceannairí:
Chief of State–Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI
(since 1 September 1969);

Head of Government–Chairman of the General People's Committee (Premier)
Umar Mustafa al-MUNTASIR (since 1 March 1987)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of
revolutionary committees

Flag: plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state
religion)

Geilleagar
Overview: The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily upon revenues
from the oil sector, which contributes virtually all export earnings and over
50% to GNP. Since 1980, however, the sharp drop in oil prices and resulting
decline in export revenues has adversely affected economic development. In 1986
per capita GNP was the highest in Africa at $5,410, but it had been $2,000
higher in 1982. Severe cutbacks in imports over the past five years have
led to shortages of basic goods and foodstuffs, although the reopening
of the Libyan-Tunisian border in April 1988 and the Libyan-Egyptian
border in December 1989 have somewhat eased shortages. Austerity
budgets and a lack of trained technicians have undermined the government's
ability to implement a number of planned infrastructure development
projects. The nonoil industrial and construction sectors, which
account for about 15% of GNP, have expanded from processing
mostly agricultural products to include petrochemicals, iron, steel,
and aluminum. Although agriculture accounts for less than 5% of GNP, it employs
20% of the labor force. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit farm
output, requiring Libya to import about 75% of its food requirements.

GNP: $20 billion, per capita $5,410; real growth rate 0% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $6.4 billion; expenditures $11.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $3.6 billion (1986 est.)

Exports: $6.1 billion (fob, 1988 est.); commodities–petroleum,
peanuts, hides; partners–Italy, USSR, FRG, Spain, France,
Belgium/Luxembourg, Turkey

Imports: $5.0 billion (fob, 1988 est.); commodities–machinery,
transport equipment, food, manufactured goods; partners–Italy, USSR,
FRG, UK, Japan

External debt: $2.1 billion, excluding military debt (December 1988)

Tháirgeadh tionsclaíoch: ráta fáis NA%

Electricity: 4,580,000 kW capacity; 13,360 million kWh produced,
3,270 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement

Agriculture: 5% of GNP; cash crops–wheat, barley, olives, dates,
citrus fruits, peanuts; 75% of food is imported

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $242 million

Currency: Libyan dinar (plural–dinars);
1 Libyan dinar (LD) = 1,000 dirhams

Exchange rates: Libyan dinars (LD) per US$1–0.2896 (January 1990),
0.2922 (1989), 0.2853 (1988), 0.2706 (1987), 0.3139 (1986), 0.2961 (1985)

Bhliain fioscach: bliain féilire

Cumarsáid
Highways: 32,500 km total; 24,000 km bituminous and bituminous treated,
8,500 km gravel, crushed stone and earth

Pipelines: crude oil 4,383 km; natural gas 1,947 km; refined products
443 km (includes 256 km liquid petroleum gas)

Ports: Tobruk, Tripoli, Banghazi, Misratah, Marsa el Brega

Merchant marine: 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 816,546
GRT/1,454,874 DWT; includes 3 short-sea passenger, 11 cargo, 4 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 11 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker

Civil air: 59 major transport aircraft

Airports: 130 total, 122 usable; 53 with permanent-surface runways;
7 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 44 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modern telecommunications system using radio relay,
coaxial cable, tropospheric scatter, and domestic satellite stations;
370,000 telephones; stations–18 AM, 3 FM, 13 TV; satellite earth stations–
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and 14 domestic;
submarine cables to France and Italy; radio relay to Tunisia; tropospheric
scatter to Greece; planned ARABSAT and Intersputnik satellite stations

Fórsaí cosanta
Branches: Armed Forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahariya includes
People's Defense (Army), Arab Air Force and Air Defense Command, Arab
Navy

Military manpower: males 15-49, 991,368; 584,512 fit for military service;
50,379 reach military age (17) annually; conscription now being implemented

Defense expenditures: 11.1% of GNP (1987)
.On
Liechtenstein
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 160 km2; land area: 160 km2

Comparative area: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 78 km total; Austria 37 km, Switzerland 41 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Climate: continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain;
cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third

Natural resources: hydroelectric potential

Land use: 25% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 38% meadows and
féarach; 19% forest and woodland; 18% other

Environment: variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation

Note: landlocked

PeopleSoft
Population: 28,292 (July 1990), growth rate 0.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Liechtensteiner(s); adjective–Liechtenstein

Ethnic divisions: 95% Alemannic, 5% Italian and other

Religion: 82.7% Roman Catholic, 7.1% Protestant, 10.2% other

Language: German (official), Alemannic dialect

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: 12,258; 5,078 foreign workers (mostly from Switzerland and
Austria); 54.4% industry, trade, and building; 41.6% services; 4.0% agriculture,
fishing, forestry, and horticulture

Saothair Eagraithe: NA

Rialtas
Long-form name: Principality of Liechtenstein

Type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Vaduz

Administrative divisions: 11 communes (gemeinden, singular–gemeinde);
Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg,
Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz

Independence: 23 January 1719, Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein
established

Constitution: 5 October 1921

Legal system: local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: St. Joseph's Day, 19 March

Executive branch: reigning prince, hereditary prince, prime
minister, deputy prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Diet (Landtag)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for criminal
cases and Superior Court (Obergericht) for civil cases

Ceannairí:
Chief of State–Prince HANS ADAM von und zu Liechtenstein
(since 13 November 1989; assumed executive powers 26 August 1984);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Hans BRUNHART (since 26 April 1978);
Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Herbert WILLE (since 2 February 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Fatherland Union (VU), Dr. Otto Hasler;
Progressive Citizens' Party (FBP), Dr. Herbert Batliner; Christian Social Party,
Fritz Kaiser

Vótáil chomhchoiteann: Uilíoch ag aois 18

Faighteoir:
Diet–last held on 5 March 1989 (next to be held by March 1993);
torthaí-faoin gcéad de vóta ag páirtí NA;
seats–(25 total) VU 13, FBP 12

Communists: none

Member of: Council of Europe, EFTA, IAEA, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, UNCTAD,
UNIDO, UNICEF, UPU, WIPO; considering UN membership; has consultative status in
the EC

Diplomatic representation: in routine diplomatic matters, Liechtenstein
is represented in the US by the Swiss Embassy;
US–the US has no diplomatic or consular mission in Liechtenstein, but the
US Consul General at Zurich (Switzerland) has consular accreditation at Vaduz

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown
on the hoist side of the blue band

Geilleagar
Overview: The prosperous economy is based primarily on small-scale light
industry and some farming. Industry accounts for 54% of total employment,
the service sector 42% (mostly based on tourism), and agriculture and
forestry 4%. The sale of postage stamps to collectors is estimated at $10
million annually and accounts for 10% of revenues. Low business taxes (the
maximum tax rate is 20%) and easy incorporation rules have induced about 25,000
holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in
Liechtenstein. Such companies, incorporated solely for tax purposes, provide an
additional 30% of state revenues. The economy is tied closely to that of
Switzerland in a customs union, and incomes and living standards parallel those
of the more prosperous Swiss groups.

GNP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1987 est.)

Unemployment rate: 0.1% (December 1986)

Budget: revenues $171 million; expenditures $189 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1986)

Exports: $807 million;
commodities–small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps,
hardware, pottery;
partners–EC 40%, EFTA 26% (Switzerland 19%) (1986)

Allmhairí: $ NA; commodities–machinery, metal goods, textiles,
foodstuffs, motor vehicles;
partners–NA

Fiach seachtracha: $ NA

Tháirgeadh tionsclaíoch: ráta fáis NA%

Electricity: 23,000 kW capacity; 150 million kWh produced,
5,340 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics,
pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism

Agriculture: livestock, vegetables, corn, wheat, potatoes, grapes

Cúnamh: none

Currency: Swiss franc, franken, or franco (plural–francs, franken,
or franchi); 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen,
or centesimi

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1–1.5150
(January 1990), 1.6359 (1989), 1.4633 (1988), 1.4912 (1987), 1.7989 (1986),
2.4571 (1985)

Bhliain fioscach: bliain féilire

Cumarsáid
Railroads: 18.5 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, electrified; owned,
operated, and included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways

Highways: 130.66 km main roads, 192.27 km byroads

Civil air: no transport aircraft

Airports: none

Telecommunications: automatic telephone system; 25,400 telephones;
stations–no AM, no FM, no TV

Fórsaí cosanta
Note: defense is responsibility of Switzerland
.On
Luxembourg
Tíreolaíocht
Total area: 2,586 km2; land area: 2,586 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 359 km total; Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, FRG 138 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Climate: modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys;
uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle
floodplain in the southeast

Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited)

Land use: 24% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 20% meadows and
féarach; 21% forest and woodland; 34% other

Environment: deforestation

Note: landlocked

PeopleSoft
Population: 383,813 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1989)

Ráta breithe: 12 breitheanna / 1,000 daonra (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 9 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Luxembourger(s); adjective–Luxembourg

Ethnic divisions: Celtic base, with French and German blend; also guest
and worker residents from Portugal, Italy, and European countries

Religion: 97% Roman Catholic, 3% Protestant and Jewish

Language: Luxembourgish, German, French; many also speak English

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: 161,000; one-third of labor force is foreign workers, mostly
from Portugal, Italy, France, Belgium, and FRG; 48.9% services, 24.7% industry,
13.2% government, 8.8% construction, 4.4% agriculture (1984)

Organized labor: 100,000 (est.) members of four confederated trade unions

Rialtas
Long-form name: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Luxembourg

Administrative divisions: 3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg

Independence: 1839

Constitution: 17 October 1868, occasional revisions

Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ
Dlínse

National holiday: National Day (public celebration of the Grand Duke's
birthday), 23 June (1921)

Executive branch: grand duke, prime minister, vice prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des
Deputes); note–the Council of State (Conseil d'Etat) is an advisory
body whose views are considered by the Chamber of Deputies

Judicial branch: Superior Court of Justice (Cour Superieure de
de Justice)

Ceannairí:
Chief of State–Grand Duke JEAN (since 12 November 1964);
Heir Apparent Prince HENRI (son of Grand Duke Jean, born 16 April 1955);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Jacques SANTER (since 21 July 1984);
Deputy Prime Minister Jacques F. POOS (since 21 July 1984)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Social Party (CSV),
Jacques Santer; Socialist Workers Party (LSAP), Jacques Poos; Liberal (DP),
Colette Flesch; Communist (KPL), Rene Urbany; Green Alternative (GAP),
Jean Huss

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Faighteoir:
Chamber of Deputies–last held on 18 June 1989 (next to be held
by June 1994);
results–CSV 31.7%, LSAP 27.2%, DP 16.2%, Greens 8.4%, PAC 7.3%, KPL 5.1%,
others 4%;
seats–(60 total) CSV 22, LSAP 18, DP 11, Greens 4, PAC 4, KPL 1, others 4

Communists: 500 party members (1982)

Other political or pressure groups: group of steel industries representing
iron and steel industry, Centrale Paysanne representing agricultural producers;
Christian and Socialist labor unions; Federation of Industrialists; Artisans and
Shopkeepers Federation

Member of: Benelux, BLEU, CCC, Council of Europe, EC, EIB, EMS, FAO, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU,
ITU, NATO, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Andre PHILIPPE; Seansaireachta ag
2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-4171;
there are Luxembourg Consulates General in New York and San Francisco;
US–Ambassador Jean BS GERARD; Embassy at 22 Boulevard
Emmanuel-Servais, 2535 Luxembourg City (mailing address is APO New York 09132);
telephone Õ352å 460123

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue;
similar to the flag of the Netherlands which uses a darker blue and is shorter;
design was based on the flag of France

Geilleagar
Overview: The stable economy features moderate growth, low
inflation, and negligible unemployment. Agriculture is based on small but
highly productive family-owned farms. The industrial sector, until
recently dominated by steel, has become increasingly more diversified,
particularly toward high-technology firms. During the past decade growth
in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in
steel. Services, especially banking, account for a growing proportion
of the economy. Luxembourg participates in an economic union with
Belgium on trade and most financial matters and is also closely connected
economically with the Netherlands.

GDP: $6.3 billion, per capita $17,200; real growth rate 4% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.0% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1.6% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $2.5 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of NA (1988)

Exports: $4.7 billion (fob, 1988); commodities–finished
steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass, aluminum, other industrial
products; partners–EC 75%, US 6%

Imports: $5.9 billion (cif, 1988 est.); commodities–minerals,
metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods; partners–FRG 40%,
Belgium 35%, France 15%, US 3%

External debt: $131.6 million (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 1,500,000 kW capacity; 1,163 million kWh produced,
3,170 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals,
metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum

Agriculture: accounts for less than 3% of GDP (including forestry);
principal products–barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine grapes;
cattle raising widespread

Cúnamh: none

Currency: Luxembourg franc (plural–francs);
1 Luxembourg franc (LuxF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Luxembourg francs (LuxF) per US$1–35.468 (January 1990),
39.404 (1989), 36.768 (1988), 37.334 (1987), 44.672 (1986), 59.378 (1985);
note–the Luxembourg franc is at par with the Belgian franc, which circulates
freely in Luxembourg

Bhliain fioscach: bliain féilire

Cumarsáid
Railroads: Luxembourg National Railways (CFL) operates 270 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge; 162 km double track; 162 km electrified

Highways: 5,108 km total; 4,995 km paved, 57 km gravel, 56 km earth; about
80 km limited access divided highway

Inland waterways: 37 km; Moselle River

Pipelines: refined products, 48 km

Ports: Mertert (river port)

Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,138 GRT/9,373 DWT;
includes 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker

Civil air: 13 major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways less than 1,220 m; 1 with runways over 3,659 m

Telecommunications: adequate and efficient system, mainly buried cables;
230,000 telephones; stations–2 AM, 4 FM, 6 TV; 2 communication satellite
earth stations operating in EUTELSAT and domestic systems

Fórsaí cosanta
Branches: Army

Military manpower: males 15-49, 99,734; 83,237 fit for military service;
2,368 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.2% of GDP, or $76 million (1989 est.)
.On

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