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Genetic Engineering and Gene therapy

Ämne: Biologi, Engelska
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Our bodies are built from millions of cells and in every single cell of your body you have a Nucleus which contains almost all the DNA (genetic material) of the cell. DNA is working as a blueprint for how to make an exactly identical cell. Every living material has DNA being the requirement for life, in order to be able to reproduce itself. The most fascinating thing is that the genetic material is always build up in the same weather or not it is in a potato, bacterium or a mammal. The basic elements are always the same. The thing that differs is the order of the nuclear bases on the double helix. It’s looks like a twisted ladder where the pins are the nuclear base pair.
A certain part of the ladder (the DNA sting) is called one gene. There are lots of them in a specific order in the genome. It is the genes who decide how you are shaped and how you work. Therefor you can easily see an affinity between all living creatures and the more genes share the stronger is the connection.
Genetic engineering is exactly what it sounds like, manipulation of genes in order to achieve a different function. The most common way is to take away a “week” gene or inset a new “strong” gene to the DNA sting. Modified crops as well as other kinds of food are enhancing our everyday diet.
It seams like we have reached a point where it is possible to use gene-modifying techniques on humans. It could make a profound difference in the treatment of many diseases. Imagine subjects with diabetes mellitus receiving annual injections of genes instead of insulin injections several times a day. That could be a reality with gene therapy. If you would like to use genetic engineering, you can remove the “diabetes gene” during the first days of pregnancy. When you have less then eight cells of the embryo the cells have not yet specialised to the kind of cells they are going to develop to. If you manage to remove the special gene at this stage the child are not going to have the malady.
I find the article very interesting and I mainly agree with the author, but there was one aspect he didn’t cover. As far as I am concerned, the search for new genes is a big industry. It’s not done by pure curiosity, perhaps for some physicians, but for the main companies’ do it for economical interests.
According to the text the broadest problem with genetic engineering is the fact that it is possible to make a non-reality offspring who is superior to others. Parents can pick out abilities and looks for their children and create an elite of people without weaknesses. Today is seams like an extreme thought, but for the 19th century forbears it would have seamed just as unbelievable as going to the moon. We can’t imagine how look like in a life span or two. Perhaps it just starts with a little and continues out of a too slippery slope and it would end in a great failure.
As the article told, the only thing we can do is to make restrictive laws so that manipulation of genes is not allowed for other purposes than medical treatment. Another thing we have to do is to keep up with the ethic discussion.
To sum up I would like to say that the availability of human genetic engineering is good, to a point. However, we have to watch up so that no one falls for the temptation and overuses it for his own purpose.

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