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Hopi Indians

Ämne: Engelska, Historia
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Hopi Indians are in a cultural way related with Zuni and Pueblo tribes. The Hopi people originated from the people who emigrated to the south west 1000 B.C.
Around 700 AD the Hopi Indians had developed an agriculture where they grew most of all corn, grain, beans, squash and cotton. Grain was the head ingredient in Piki, very thin bread which occurred every meal. It could be eaten smoothly or with a sauce. The sauces were often maid from vegetables that the tribe cultivated like squash or beans.
The women collected wild plants and vegetables and the men hunted deer. Besides deerskin was very valuable. Hunting and killing was taken very seriously by everybody in the tribe. Before hunting the men performed prayers and smoked the holy pipe to pure themselves before the hunt. Around 1100 B.C the Hopi Indians gave up their Pit-houses and moved into regular pueblo-houses. The Hopi people founded cities like Oraibo and Mesa Verde. In 1541 Coronado a Spaniard reached the Hopi Indians land. His arrival was followed by Spanish missionaries and explorers.
In 1680 the Pueblo Indians carried out a revolt against the Spaniards. During this revolt the Hopis Indians succeeded to drive away the Spaniards for good and they refused to be Christians. The have still today accomplished to stay inside their own religion.
The Hopi Indians most central cultural and religious activity was the Kachina ceremony.
Kachinas were spirits associated to the circle of life, from being born to death and rebirth.
The spirits lived beneath the earth from October to April and the moved among the people rest of the year.
During the Kachina ceremony, which was the puberty ritual for every Hopi child, the men dressed themselves in complicated masks and costumes because they wanted to impersonate a special Kachina. The Indians used dolls to present the Kachinas. All the men belonged to a Kachina clan and every clan had its own kiva or church.
When a Hopi boy and a girl decides to get married, to girl is ought to move in with the boy for three days. During these three days she is bound to show her housekeeping skills for the boy’s mother. When these three days are over the young couple prays for the upcoming sun and therefore becomes man and wife. After the marriage the couple moves in with the girl’s family and if the marriage doesn’t work from both sides then the young couple can divorce each other.
In the middle of the 19th century it was the Navajo Indians and not the white men who threatened the Hopi culture. The war between these two tribes continued a whole century. In 1882 the Hopi Indians was given a reserve, but the members of the tribe were much divided when it came down to make up about the reserve. Therefore it took 24 years until all in the tribe decided take the reserve.

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