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Technology project

My house in Sweden:

My house is located in northern Sweden next to a river. The climate is cold mostly in winter and in summer it’s mostly sunny. My house is going to have a roof, a bed room, a living room, a kitchen and a bath room. I am going to make a model of my house with a cross section between the roof and the house so everything is visible. The roof is lift able. My house is going to be made of brick (tegelsten) and mortar (fogmassa).The alternative energy resources I’m using to my house is hydropower (vattenkraft) and solar power I have chosen those, because both are renewable energies that don’t affect the environment as it does with fossil fuels. My house will have a lot of appliances and energy saving features and will of course have insulation. In summer my house will have electricity from solar panels on the roof and on the winter my house will have electricity form hydropower.
Energy saving things in my house:
1. Fibre glass insulation (issolering)
2. Low flow shower head. (So it will come out little amount of water instead of much).
3. Appliances: Low energy washing machine – (LG tvättmaskin WD14376FD) – Elgiganten, Tumble-drier – (Miele torktumlare T8423CLWNDS), Low energy TV – (LG 32″ LCD 32LC46), Low energy stove and oven – (Elektro helios hällspis SK6500F), Automatic fluorescent light bulbs(energy saving bulb that lights up when it gets dark outside and lights off when it gets lighter outside) – Clas Ohlson
4. Blinds – Persienner
5. Dark color of the facade – (Dark color attracts more heat from outside)
6. Double-glassed windows – (All windows makes less heat escape.)
7. Ordinary toilet with 1 liter flush.
8. Sensory lamps (sensor lamps -lights on when you go in a room and lights off when you go out of a room).
9. Threshold
10. Wheat roof/sealing insulation
The reason why I have chosen this 10 energy saving things is because they all saves energy and is good for the environment even though they uses some electricity, since my energy saving things that uses electricity have that from solar cells or hydropower (renewable energy resource).
The environmental impact of renewable and non- renewable energy resources:
There are both renewable and non renewable energy resources. The renewable energy resources are wind, water (hydropower), sun (solar panels) and geothermal energy and the non renewable energy resources are the fossil fuels coal, oil, natural gas and the dangerous radioactive uranium. The renewable energy resources, it takes a short time for them to replenish themselves and the fossil fuels and radioactive uranium are going run out, they can’t be reused because they are non renewable energies. Fossil fuels were made millions of years ago when the pressure on the fossils of plants and animals increased this developed into fossil fuels.
However the world isn’t using the renewable energies as much as they could. Fossil fuels is still used in the whole world for making electricity, these fossil fuels lets out carbon dioxide which increases the effect known as the “greenhouse effect”. The renewable energies don’t let out any dangerous substances or carbon dioxide so they are simply not contributing to the worlds increasing problem the “Greenhouse effect”. The fossil fuels have in common that they all lets out carbon dioxide, but the uranium doesn’t let out carbon dioxide it is instead dangerous for mankind because it is radioactive and can kill, if workers in uranium power stations isn’t careful with handling with uranium.
Oil, coal and natural gas they have in common that they let out carbon, that they are used in huge amount of numbers and when getting electricity from them causes emissions. Natural gas doesn’t let out so much carbon dioxide as with oil and coal but it is dangerous when getting the natural gas and transporting it because the consequence is that it may burn because it’s very flammable. Coal lets out the most emissions when it burns and it also lets out a huge amount of ashes which makes the landscape uglier. When getting and transport the oil the risks are that it’s going to be an oil discharge which will pollute the water. The fossil fuels are the most dangerous for the environment because they are non environmental friendly and for people in a way because it is destroying our planet. However the non renewable energy resource uranium which is radioactive is mostly dangerous for the society and mankind because it can kill anyone if the workers in the nuclear power stations are not careful with handling it properly if radioactive nuclear fuels leaks out the chance are big that people will die, in other words not a great idea to let un careful persons work there.

The renewable energy resources have in common that they don’t let out carbon dioxide at all,
but some energies are worse than others, hydropower stations hurts the animals that live closely to them because it collects the water making it too wet at one side and too dry on the other side. Wind power takes up living people’s living space and sun doesn’t hurt anything at all. Geothermal energy is a relatively new energy resource, you drill down and take up the earths heat and uses that for heating and electricity for houses. Geothermal is a renewable energy resource and doesn’t have any kind of problem which affects the environment in any way. My conclusion of this paragraphs which sums up the renewable and non renewable energy resources impact on environment, that the solar energy and geothermal are the best for the environment since those doesn’t have even one environment problem. The only problem with sun power and geothermal energy that the solar panels are expensive and the geothermal energy power stations are quite expensive to make.
The development and generation of hydropower and solar cells:

The development of hydropower:

The hydropower stations originally come from China. By making use of the hydropower stations you could make better use of the natural accesses such as the forest and the ore. The modern variant of the water turbines consider them as a further development of the horizontal water wheel. During the Middle Ages the horizontal water wheel started to develop. A multitude attempt to make the horizontal water wheel better was made during 1700s the beginning of 1800s. In France year 1826 Sociéte d´Ecouragement pour l´indusrie Nationale had a competition which was to design a horizontal water wheel with spoon formed shovels, the price was 6000 franc and the young engineer who won this was Bénoît Fourneyron. “Fourneyron turbine” that he designed was the first water turbine that counted as useful. The “svalthjul” had shovels that grinded grains. The next step in the development was to lead the energy even further, the shovels where later replaced with turbines in 1800s so the energy could be converted into electricity. Samuel B Howd built the first practical turbine of this sort he got patent on this year 1838.The big breakthrough came with James B Francis when he constructed a turbine better than Howd. He worked in the Lowell Manufacturing Company as a chief engineer, where he got his mission to build hydropower stations in the area. This work leads him into construction of water turbines for generating electricity. He published a book called “Lowell Hydraulic Experiments” in 1855 where he compared his turbine with the Fourneyron turbine. This book had a lot of meaning for the development of hydropower. Year 1860 the turbine modified and developed. The Englishman James Thomson made meaningful changes to the Francis turbine. In Sweden an engineer office called “Qvist & Gjers ingengörsbyrå in Arboga” started to notice the Francis turbine during the 1800s and at the turn of the century the turbine was finish developed. Today the Francis turbine is the ordinary turbine used over the whole world.
How hydropower generate electricity:
The hydropower station collects the water. Then the hydropower station “gate” opens and the water flows though it making the shovels move. The shovels get kinetic energy as the water flows through them. This kinetic energy is converted intro electricity by a generator connected to the shovels. That’s how hydropower generates electricity.
The development of solar cells:
In 1839 a French physicist called Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel was recognised to the “photovoltaic” term that comes from the Greek (photo which means light and voltaic which means simply electricity therefore photovoltaic means light-electricity. Alexandre Becquerel was only 19 years old when he found out that certain materials would create small amounts of electric current when they where in contact with light.
However the first solar cells weren’t made until in 1883 when the American inventor Charles Fitts had made them. In 1946 Russell Ohl developed the modern solar cell. But it was years after this in 1954 when Bell Laboratories experimented with semiconductors when they found out accidentally that silicon is very sensitive to light. That’s how the modern solar cells were developed by this “accident”.
How solar cells generates electricity: The solar cells on the solar panels on a roof etc, converts the suns energy (heat and light) into electricity.
How my energy saving features saves energy:
Automatic fluorescent light bulbs – This sort of bulbs is on when you go in to a room and when you go out of a room if is off. Because it does that, this bulbs saves a lot of energy because they aren’t lighted on all the time and a person doesn’t have to go and turn it off. This automatic fluorescent light bulbs was made in the 1800s.
Fibre glass insulation – Keeps the heat in a house, a house with isolation doesn’t need to pay for the heat. The heat can’t escape from the house because my house has insulation.
Low flow shower head- From the shower head it will came out a little amount of water instead of much water. If much water came out the rent will go up since water gets distilled in a station which needs electricity to distill the water.
Tumble – drier (torktumlare) – The tumble drier takes 4 kWh when it’s washing by 70 % remainder moisture and it is classed as B energy.
Low energy TV (Flat screen) – A low energy TV with a flat screen saves more energy than a TV with a fatter screen because the TV with a fatter screen has more components than a screen with a flat screen. The more components in a screen the more heat (energy). A flat screen has fewer components than a fat screen. This is why a non modern TV with fatter screen has more heat (energy) than a modern TV with a flat screen which has less heat (energy). That’s why a flat screen TV is way better than a fat screen TV that is non modern.
A special ventilation system – An energy saving ventilation saver that can warm and cool the heat in a house without raising the electric bill.
Dark color on the facade – Dark color on the facade attracts more heat from outside which makes the house warmer so I don’t have to pay more for heat.
Double-glass windows – Keeps the heat inside and doesn’t let no cool air come inside and doesn’t let any warm air escape from the house. This makes the house keep the heat so the heat doesn’t get lost.
Low energy stove and oven – This low energy stove and oven are energy savers because the stove is flat and this means stoves with non flat boards has bigger volume/area and takes more heat (energy) to heat up those kinds of stoves. With flatter boards on a stove you save energy because the more area/volume the more energy it needs to heat up it. A stove with flat boards and “glaskäramikhäll” oven is therefore energy savers because they don’t need so much electricity to heat up food/cooking. Glass that’s in glaskäramikhäll oven makes the oven attract more heat as it starts to get heat from electricity.
Blinds (persienner) – Blinds in the double windows saving electricity for warming up the house by attracting heat from the sun.
Sensor lamps – Lamps that light on when you go in to a room and lights off 15 seconds after you’ve gone out of a room. This saves energy because you don’t have to turn the light off because the lamps do that for you. Energy waste is reduced with this.
Low energy toilet low flush – This toilet is more energy saving than a normal toilet because it only uses 1 liter water per flush than usual which is 4 liter water per flush.
Threshold – Saves heat energy in a house by blocking cold air.
Roof insulation – Keeps the heat in the house, when very cold outside saving heat energy.
The Plan and construction of my house:

Materials:

1. Cardboard/cotton= Fibreglass insulation.
2. Paper cardboard = the walls of house bricks/things in the house.
3. Colour pencils & water colours.
4. Styrofoam (frigolit)
5. Pencil
6. Ruler
7. Scissor
8. Tape
9. Glue
10. Coloured papers
11. Silky paper
12. Foil (folie)
13. Plastic paper
14. Hay

Plan:
1. Fix the walls of the house with cardboard.
2. Fix the fibreglass insulation with styrofoam.
3. Glue on white papers on walls and facade of the house.
4. Colour walls with different colours and the façade of the house dark blue.
5. Make solar panels and hydropower generator.
6. Show where the electricity comes from.
7. Colour the floors & walls.
8. Make all furnitures and colour them (styrofoam/cardboard).
9. Make all the energy saving features.
10. The cardboard used for the roof will have white paper glued on it than coloured with a dark colour and then glued on solar cells.
11. I glue on hay in the sealing/roof so it has roof/sealing insulation. The hay is supposed to be wheat insulation.
12. For the hay not to get wasted I have glued on a plastic paper so you can see it.

Construction:
My solar panels on the roof will face the south so it can trap as much heat as it can as possible.

Explain your choice of material, tools and shape structure:
I have chosen these materials because I have them and they will look good when I have fixed everything. The tools are helping me to finish the house that’s why I’ve chosen them. The shape of the house is a rectangle it’s a villa. The styrofoam I have used as insulation because it is very good material to use as insulation it is supposed to be fibre glass insulation. I have also used
hay(hö) as insulation in the roof and it is supposed to be wheat insulation, people that see my house will se the insulation because I haven’t glued on paper – I have glued on plastic paper instead for that purpose. I have chosen to use a variety of different materials, as written above this paragraph.

Comparison of my alternative energy resources (sun and water) with other energy resources:
The society uses unfortunately still non renewable energy resources as the fossil fuels and uranium to make electricity, by making electricity of these it’s a lot more cheaper than making electricity with the renewable energy resources which have all in common that they are expensive. My energy resources sun (solar power) and water (hydropower) are a lot better than all the fossil fuels and the uranium for making electricity.
No emissions/discharge is released when making electricity out of these. However geothermal might be better than hydropower for the society’s needs because hydropower affects the animals which lives near the hydropower stations. My conclusion here is that my alternative energy resources meets the society very well except that they are expensive to make at first (solar panels and hydropower stations). With the energy we use in the world total we could easily use only renewable energy resources for getting electricity, which wouldn’t let any carbon dioxide at all out. In the future the fossil fuels maybe will be placed with all the alternative energy resources.

Discussion paragraph of the technical issues of my chosen energy (solar energy):

Coming up with the idea with solar panels was by Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel who came up with the photovoltaic are (light – electricity), then Russell Ohl further developed this idea and it wasn’t until the Belle laboratorie came up with the idea experimented with semi conductors when they found out that silicon is very sensitive to light, that’s how the modern solar cells were developed. Without the first idea by Alexandre the making of solar energy wouldn’t be possible because somebody needs to have the first idea.

Evaluation: I think my project has gone well; it was fun to build the house and a bit tricky with the essay.
I could have used more books for the references though and maybe write more. Otherwise this went pretty well.
Anika Hossain

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